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49 papers found.
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Early neonatal mortality and neurological outcomes of neonatal resuscitation in a resource-limited setting on the Thailand-Myanmar border: A descriptive study

. Carrara, Nant War War Thin, Wah Wah Say, Naw Ta Mlar Paw, Kesinee Chotivanich, Claudia Turner. Formal analysis: Sophie Janet, Julie A. Simpson, Rose McGready. Investigation: Sophie Janet. Methodology ... : Sophie Janet, Julie A. Simpson, Rose McGready. Supervision: Verena I. Carrara, Jane Crawley, Rose McGready. Validation: Sophie Janet, Verena I. Carrara, Julie A. Simpson. Writing ± original draft

Pharmacokinetics of a single 1g dose of azithromycin in rectal tissue in men

Chlamydia is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection among men who have sex with men. Repeat infection following treatment with 1g azithromycin is common and treatment failure of up to 22% has been reported. This study measured the pharmacokinetics of azithromycin in rectal tissue in men following a single 1g dose to assess whether azithromycin reaches the rectal ...

Health Risks in Same-Sex Attracted Ugandan University Students: Evidence from Two Cross-Sectional Studies

Widespread discrimination across much of sub-Saharan Africa against persons with same-sex sexuality, including recent attempts in Uganda to extend criminal sanctions against same-sex behavior, are likely to have profound effects on this group’s health, health care access, and well-being. Yet knowledge of the prevalence of same-sex sexuality in this region is scarce. This study ...

The rise of multiple imputation: a review of the reporting and implementation of the method in medical research

Background Missing data are common in medical research, which can lead to a loss in statistical power and potentially biased results if not handled appropriately. Multiple imputation (MI) is a statistical method, widely adopted in practice, for dealing with missing data. Many academic journals now emphasise the importance of reporting information regarding missing data and proposed ...

Submicroscopic and Asymptomatic Plasmodium Parasitaemia Associated with Significant Risk of Anaemia in Papua, Indonesia

Trianty Retno A. S. Utami Yusrifar Kharisma Tirta Enny Kenangalem Daniel Lampah Andreas Kusuma Grennady Wirjanata 0 Steven Kho 0 Julie A. Simpson Sarah Auburn 0 Nicholas M. Douglas 0 Rintis Noviyanti

Implications of the licensure of a partially efficacious malaria vaccine on evaluating second-generation vaccines

Background Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, with approximately 225 million clinical episodes and >1.2 million deaths annually attributed to malaria. Development of a highly efficacious malaria vaccine will offer unparalleled possibilities for disease prevention and remains a key priority for long-term malaria control and elimination. Discussion The Malaria ...

Statistical Power Calculations for Mixed Pharmacokinetic Study Designs Using a Population Approach

Simultaneous modelling of dense and sparse pharmacokinetic data is possible with a population approach. To determine the number of individuals required to detect the effect of a covariate, simulation-based power calculation methodologies can be employed. The Monte Carlo Mapped Power method (a simulation-based power calculation methodology using the likelihood ratio test) was ...

Immunological markers of Plasmodium vivax exposure and immunity: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Background Identifying Plasmodium vivax antigen-specific antibodies associated with P. vivax infection and protective immunity is key to the development of serosurveillance tools and vaccines for malaria. Antibody targets of P. vivax can be identified by seroepidemiological studies of individuals living in P. vivax-endemic areas, and is an important strategy given the limited ...

Change in Body Size and Mortality: Results from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study

Background The association between change in weight or body mass index, and mortality is widely reported, however, both measures fail to account for fat distribution. Change in waist circumference, a measure of central adiposity, in relation to mortality has not been studied extensively. Methods We investigated the association between mortality and changes in directly measured ...

The impact of missing data on analyses of a time-dependent exposure in a longitudinal cohort: a simulation study

Background Missing data often cause problems in longitudinal cohort studies with repeated follow-up waves. Research in this area has focussed on analyses with missing data in repeated measures of the outcome, from which participants with missing exposure data are typically excluded. We performed a simulation study to compare complete-case analysis with Multiple imputation (MI) for ...

A robust design for identification of the Parasite Clearance Estimator

Background Anti-malarial efficacy needs to be monitored continually to ensure optimal dosing in the face of emerging anti-malarial drug resistance. The efficacy of artemisinin based combination therapies (ACT) is assessed by repeated measurements of parasite density in the blood of patients following treatment. Parasite density is measured from a capillary or venous blood sample, ...

Estimating Gestational Age in Late Presenters to Antenatal Care in a Resource-Limited Setting on the Thai-Myanmar Border

Estimating gestational age in resource-limited settings is prone to considerable inaccuracy because crown-rump length measured by ultrasound before 14 weeks gestation, the recommended method for estimating gestational age, is often unavailable. Judgements regarding provision of appropriate obstetric and neonatal care are dependent on accurate estimation of gestational age. We ...

Postnatal growth outcomes and influence of maternal gestational weight gain: a prospective cohort study in rural Vietnam

Background Suboptimal weight gain during pregnancy may result in adverse outcomes for both the mother and child, including increased risk of pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes, delivery of low birth weight and small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants, and preterm delivery. The objectives of this study were to identify maternal predictors of rate of weight gain in pregnancy, and ...

Targeting the Cell Stress Response of Plasmodium falciparum to Overcome Artemisinin Resistance

Successful control of falciparum malaria depends greatly on treatment with artemisinin combination therapies. Thus, reports that resistance to artemisinins (ARTs) has emerged, and that the prevalence of this resistance is increasing, are alarming. ART resistance has recently been linked to mutations in the K13 propeller protein. We undertook a detailed kinetic analysis of the drug ...

Maternal Vitamin D Status and Infant Outcomes in Rural Vietnam: A Prospective Cohort Study

Objective Vitamin D deficiency affects 1 billion people globally. It has an important role in bone homeostasis, brain development and modulation of the immune system and yet the impact of antenatal vitamin D deficiency on infant outcomes is poorly understood. We assessed the association of 25- hydroxyvitamin D levels (25-OHD) in late pregnancy and early infant growth and ...

Severe Malarial Thrombocytopenia: A Risk Factor for Mortality in Papua, Indonesia

Background The significance of thrombocytopenia to the morbidity and mortality of malaria is poorly defined. We compared the platelet counts and clinical correlates of patients with and those without malaria in southern Papua, Indonesia.

Rationale and design of the iPap trial: a randomized controlled trial of home-based HPV self-sampling for improving participation in cervical screening by never- and under-screened women in Australia

Background Organized screening based on Pap tests has substantially reduced deaths from cervical cancer in many countries, including Australia. However, the impact of the program depends upon the degree to which women participate. A new method of screening, testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA to detect the virus that causes cervical cancer, has recently become available. ...

Infant motor development in rural Vietnam and intrauterine exposures to anaemia, iron deficiency and common mental disorders: a prospective community-based study

Background Antenatal anaemia, iron deficiency and common mental disorders (CMD) are prevalent in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of antenatal exposures to these risks and infant motor development. Methods A cohort of women who were pregnant with a single foetus and between 12 and 20 weeks pregnant in 50 ...

A review of the reporting and handling of missing data in cohort studies with repeated assessment of exposure measures

BackgroundRetaining participants in cohort studies with multiple follow-up waves is difficult. Commonly, researchers are faced with the problem of missing data, which may introduce biased results as well as a loss of statistical power and precision. The STROBE guidelines von Elm et al. (Lancet, 370:1453-1457, 2007); Vandenbroucke et al. (PLoS Med, 4:e297, 2007) and the guidelines ...

Major Burden of Severe Anemia from Non-Falciparum Malaria Species in Southern Papua: A Hospital-Based Surveillance Study

Ric Price and colleagues use hospital-based surveillance data to estimate the risk of severe anemia and mortality associated with endemic Plasmodium species in southern Papua, Indonesia. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary