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223 papers found.
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Generalization of DNA microarray dispersion properties: microarray equivalent of t-distribution

Background DNA microarrays are a powerful technology that can provide a wealth of gene expression data for disease studies, drug development, and a wide scope of other investigations. Because of the large volume and inherent variability of DNA microarray data, many new statistical methods have been developed for evaluating the significance of the observed differences in gene...

Cancer siRNA therapy by tumor selective delivery with ligand-targeted sterically stabilized nanoparticle

Potent sequence selective gene inhibition by siRNA ‘targeted’ therapeutics promises the ultimate level of specificity, but siRNA therapeutics is hindered by poor intracellular uptake, limited blood stability and non-specific immune stimulation. To address these problems, ligand-targeted, sterically stabilized nanoparticles have been adapted for siRNA. Self-assembling...

C-terminal HERG (LQT2) mutations disrupt IKr channel regulation through 14-3-3ϵ

β-Adrenergic receptor-mediated cAMP or protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent modulation of cardiac potassium currents controls ventricular action potential duration (APD) at faster heart rates. HERG (KCNH2) gene mutations are associated with congenital long-QT syndrome (LQT2) and affect IKr activity, a key determinant in ventricular repolarization. Physical activity or emotional...

Decreased Hepatic Futile Cycling Compensates for Increased Glucose Disposal in the Pten Heterodeficient Mouse

Jun Xu Lori Gowen Christian Raphalides Katrina K. Hoyer Jason G. Weinger Mathilde Renard Joshua J. Troke Bhavapriya Vaitheesyaran W.N. Paul Lee Mohammed F. Saad Mark W. Sleeman Michael A. Teitell

The Prohormone Convertase Enzyme 2 (PC2) Is Essential for Processing Pro-Islet Amyloid Polypeptide at the NH2-Terminal Cleavage Site

Jing Wang Jun Xu Jennifer Finnerty Machi Furuta Donald F. Steiner C. Bruce Verchere Impaired processing of pro-islet amyloid polypeptide (proIAPP), the precursor of the b-cell peptide islet amyloid

Detection of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in the Brain: Potential Role of the Chemokine Mig in Pathogenesis

Background. Previous studies have shown that common human coronavirus might be neurotropic, although it was first isolated as a pathogen of the respiratory tract. We noticed that a few patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) experienced central nervous symptoms during the course of illness. In the present study, we isolated a SARS coronavirus strain from a brain...

Association of Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups with Exceptional Longevity in a Chinese Population

Background Longevity is a multifactorial trait with a genetic contribution, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms were found to be involved in the phenomenon of longevity. Methodology/Principal Findings To explore the effects of mtDNA haplogroups on the prevalence of extreme longevity (EL), a population based case-control study was conducted in Rugao – a prefecture city in...

Sex differences in sex chromosome gene expression in mouse brain

A major question is whether genes encoded on the sex chromosomes act directly in non-gonadal tissues to cause sex differences in development or function, or whether all sex differences in somatic tissues are induced by gonadal secretions. As part of this question we asked whether mouse X–Y homologous gene pairs are expressed in brain in a sex-specific fashion. Using RT–PCR and...

Transcriptome Analysis of the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

Background The brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) is one of the most serious insect pests of rice in Asia. However, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the development, wing dimorphism and sex difference in this species. Genomic information for BPH is currently unavailable, and, therefore, transcriptome and expression profiling data for this...

Integrating time-course microarray gene expression profiles with cytotoxicity for identification of biomarkers in primary rat hepatocytes exposed to cadmium

Motivation: DNA microarrays can provide information about the expression levels of thousands of genes simultaneously at the transcriptomic level, while conventional cell viability and cytotoxicity measurement methods provide information about the biological functions at the cellular level. Integrating these data at different levels provides a promising approach for evaluating or...

Lipin Deficiency Impairs Diurnal Metabolic Fuel Switching

Fatty liver is a common feature of both obesity and lipodystrophy, reflecting compromised adipose tissue function. The lipin-deficient fatty liver dystrophy (fld) mouse is an exception, as there is lipodystrophy without a fatty liver. Using a combination of indirect calorimetry and stable-isotope flux phenotyping, we determined that fld mice exhibit abnormal fuel utilization...

Detection of epithelial to mesenchymal transition in airways of a bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis model derived from an α-smooth muscle actin-Cre transgenic mouse

Background Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) has been widely observed in patients suffering interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. In vitro studies have also demonstrated that AECs could convert into myofibroblasts following exposure to TGF-β1. In this study, we examined whether EMT occurs in bleomycin (BLM) induced pulmonary fibrosis, and...

Advantages of dynamic “closed loop” stable isotope flux phenotyping over static “open loop” clamps in detecting silent genetic and dietary phenotypes

In vivo insulin sensitivity can be assessed using “open loop” clamp or “closed loop” methods. Open loop clamp methods are static, and fix plasma glucose independently from plasma insulin. Closed loop methods are dynamic, and assess glucose disposal in response to a stable isotope labeled glucose tolerance test. Using PPARα−/− mice, open and closed loop assessments of insulin...

Culture, serotonin receptor polymorphism and locus of attention

The present research examined the interaction between genes and culture as potential determinants of individuals’ locus of attention. As the serotonin (5-HT) system has been associated with attentional focus and the ability to adapt to changes in reinforcement, we examined the serotonin 1A receptor polymorphism (5-HTR1A). Koreans and European Americans were genotyped and reported...

Genomes of the rice pest brown planthopper and its endosymbionts reveal complex complementary contributions for host adaptation

Background The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, the most destructive pest of rice, is a typical monophagous herbivore that feeds exclusively on rice sap, which migrates over long distances. Outbreaks of it have re-occurred approximately every three years in Asia. It has also been used as a model system for ecological studies and for developing effective pest management. To...

Identification and characterization of microRNAs in Clonorchis sinensis of human health significance

Background Clonorchis sinensis is a zoonotic parasite causing clonorchiasis-associated human disease such as biliary calculi, cholecystitis, liver cirrhosis, and it is currently classified as carcinogenic to humans for cholangiocarcinoma. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding, regulating small RNA molecules which are essential for the complex life cycles of parasites and are involved...

Reduced effectiveness of escitalopram in the forced swimming test is associated with increased serotonin clearance rate in food-restricted rats

Efficacy of antidepressant drugs is often limited. One of the limiting factors may be diet. This study shows that the effect of escitalopram in the forced swimming test is diminished in rats by food restriction that decreased body weight by 8%. The primary target for escitalopram is the serotonin (5-HT) transporter. Using high-speed chronoamperometry to measure 5-HT clearance in...

Some effects of dopamine transporter and receptor ligands on discriminative stimulus, physiologic, and directly observable indices of opioid withdrawal in rhesus monkeys

Rationale Some monoamine uptake inhibitors (e.g., cocaine) attenuate the subjective and discriminative stimulus effects of opioid withdrawal. Objective This study examined a role for dopamine transporters and receptors as targets for drugs to modify the discriminative stimulus effects of opioid withdrawal and further examined a subset of these drugs for their capacity to modify...