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Bioinformatic analysis reveals an evolutional selection for DNA:RNA hybrid G-quadruplex structures as putative transcription regulatory elements in warm-blooded animals

Recently, we reported the co-transcriptional formation of DNA:RNA hybrid G-quadruplex (HQ) structure by the non-template DNA strand and nascent RNA transcript, which in turn modulates transcription under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Here we present bioinformatic analysis on putative HQ-forming sequences (PHQS) in the genomes of eukaryotic organisms. Starting from...

DNA G-quadruplex formation in response to remote downstream transcription activity: long-range sensing and signal transducing in DNA double helix

G-quadruplexes, four-stranded structures formed by Guanine-rich nucleic acids, are implicated in many physiological and pathological processes. G-quadruplex-forming sequences are abundant in genomic DNA, and G-quadruplexes have recently been shown to exist in the genome of mammalian cells. However, how G-quadruplexes are formed in the genomes remains largely unclear. Here, we...

A competitive formation of DNA:RNA hybrid G-quadruplex is responsible to the mitochondrial transcription termination at the DNA replication priming site

Ke-wei Zheng Ren-yi Wu Yi-de He Shan Xiao Jia-yu Zhang Jia-quan Liu Yu-hua Hao The authors wish to apologize for errors in the last paragraph of the DISCUSSION section in this paper. The RNA DQ

A competitive formation of DNA:RNA hybrid G-quadruplex is responsible to the mitochondrial transcription termination at the DNA replication priming site

Human mitochondrial DNA contains a distinctive guanine-rich motif denoted conserved sequence block II (CSB II) that stops RNA transcription, producing prematurely terminated transcripts to prime mitochondrial DNA replication. Recently, we reported a general phenomenon that DNA:RNA hybrid G-quadruplexes (HQs) readily form during transcription when the non-template DNA strand is...

Co-transcriptional formation of DNA:RNA hybrid G-quadruplex and potential function as constitutional cis element for transcription control

G-quadruplex formation in genomic DNA is considered to regulate transcription. Previous investigations almost exclusively focused on intramolecular G-quadruplexes formed by DNA carrying four or more G-tracts, and structure formation has rarely been studied in physiologically relevant processes. Here, we report an almost entirely neglected, but actually much more prevalent form of...

Molecular crowding creates an essential environment for the formation of stable G-quadruplexes in long double-stranded DNA

Large numbers of guanine-rich sequences with potential to form G-quadruplexes have been identified in genomes of various organisms. Such sequences are constrained at both ends by long DNA duplex with a complementary strand in close proximity to compete for duplex formation. G-quadruplex/duplex competition in long double-stranded DNA has rarely been studied. In this work, we used...

G-quadruplex formation at the 3′ end of telomere DNA inhibits its extension by telomerase, polymerase and unwinding by helicase

Telomere G-quadruplex is emerging as a promising anti-cancer target due to its inhibition to telomerase, an enzyme expressed in more than 85% tumors. Telomerase-mediated telomere extension and some other reactions require a free 3′ telomere end in single-stranded form. G-quadruplex formation near the 3′ end of telomere DNA can leave a 3′ single-stranded tail of various sizes. How...