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Bioinformatic analysis reveals an evolutional selection for DNA:RNA hybrid G-quadruplex structures as putative transcription regulatory elements in warm-blooded animals

Recently, we reported the co-transcriptional formation of DNA:RNA hybrid G-quadruplex (HQ) structure by the non-template DNA strand and nascent RNA transcript, which in turn modulates transcription under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Here we present bioinformatic analysis on putative HQ-forming sequences (PHQS) in the genomes of eukaryotic organisms. Starting from...

DNA G-quadruplex formation in response to remote downstream transcription activity: long-range sensing and signal transducing in DNA double helix

G-quadruplexes, four-stranded structures formed by Guanine-rich nucleic acids, are implicated in many physiological and pathological processes. G-quadruplex-forming sequences are abundant in genomic DNA, and G-quadruplexes have recently been shown to exist in the genome of mammalian cells. However, how G-quadruplexes are formed in the genomes remains largely unclear. Here, we...

A competitive formation of DNA:RNA hybrid G-quadruplex is responsible to the mitochondrial transcription termination at the DNA replication priming site

Ke-wei Zheng Ren-yi Wu Yi-de He Shan Xiao Jia-yu Zhang Jia-quan Liu Yu-hua Hao The authors wish to apologize for errors in the last paragraph of the DISCUSSION section in this paper. The RNA DQ

Co-transcriptional formation of DNA:RNA hybrid G-quadruplex and potential function as constitutional cis element for transcription control

G-quadruplex formation in genomic DNA is considered to regulate transcription. Previous investigations almost exclusively focused on intramolecular G-quadruplexes formed by DNA carrying four or more G-tracts, and structure formation has rarely been studied in physiologically relevant processes. Here, we report an almost entirely neglected, but actually much more prevalent form of...

A competitive formation of DNA:RNA hybrid G-quadruplex is responsible to the mitochondrial transcription termination at the DNA replication priming site

Human mitochondrial DNA contains a distinctive guanine-rich motif denoted conserved sequence block II (CSB II) that stops RNA transcription, producing prematurely terminated transcripts to prime mitochondrial DNA replication. Recently, we reported a general phenomenon that DNA:RNA hybrid G-quadruplexes (HQs) readily form during transcription when the non-template DNA strand is...

Molecular crowding creates an essential environment for the formation of stable G-quadruplexes in long double-stranded DNA

Large numbers of guanine-rich sequences with potential to form G-quadruplexes have been identified in genomes of various organisms. Such sequences are constrained at both ends by long DNA duplex with a complementary strand in close proximity to compete for duplex formation. G-quadruplex/duplex competition in long double-stranded DNA has rarely been studied. In this work, we used...

G-quadruplex formation at the 3′ end of telomere DNA inhibits its extension by telomerase, polymerase and unwinding by helicase

Telomere G-quadruplex is emerging as a promising anti-cancer target due to its inhibition to telomerase, an enzyme expressed in more than 85% tumors. Telomerase-mediated telomere extension and some other reactions require a free 3′ telomere end in single-stranded form. G-quadruplex formation near the 3′ end of telomere DNA can leave a 3′ single-stranded tail of various sizes. How...