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17 papers found.
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Necrotizing pneumonia: an emerging problem in children?

Background In children, necrotizing pneumonia (NP) is an uncommon, severe complication of pneumonia. It is characterized by destruction of the underlying lung parenchyma resulting in multiple small, thin-walled cavities and is often accompanied by empyema and bronchopleural fistulae. Review NP in children was first reported in children in 1994, and since then there has been a...

Antibiotics in childhood pneumonia: how long is long enough?

Improved access to healthcare, vaccines and treatment with antibiotics has reduced global mortality from childhood community-acquired pneumonia. However, as respiratory viruses are responsible for most episodes of pneumonia, important questions remain over who should receive these agents and the length of each treatment course. Worldwide concerns with increasing antibiotic...

Genotypic Diversity within a Single Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain Commonly Shared by Australian Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

In cystic fibrosis (CF), Pseudomonas aeruginosa undergoes intra-strain genotypic and phenotypic diversification while establishing and maintaining chronic lung infections. As the clinical significance of these changes is uncertain, we investigated intra-strain diversity in commonly shared strains from CF patients to determine if specific gene mutations were associated with...

Nasal swab samples and real-time polymerase chain reaction assays in community-based, longitudinal studies of respiratory viruses: the importance of sample integrity and quality control

Background Carefully conducted, community-based, longitudinal studies are required to gain further understanding of the nature and timing of respiratory viruses causing infections in the population. However, such studies pose unique challenges for field specimen collection, including as we have observed the appearance of mould in some nasal swab specimens. We therefore...

Comparison of DNA Extraction Methods for Microbial Community Profiling with an Application to Pediatric Bronchoalveolar Lavage Samples

Barcoded amplicon sequencing is rapidly becoming a standard method for profiling microbial communities, including the human respiratory microbiome. While this approach has less bias than standard cultivation, several steps can introduce variation including the type of DNA extraction method used. Here we assessed five different extraction methods on pediatric bronchoalveolar...

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Exhibits Frequent Recombination, but Only a Limited Association between Genotype and Ecological Setting

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen and an important cause of infection, particularly amongst cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. While specific strains capable of patient-to-patient transmission are known, many infections appear to be caused by unique and unrelated strains. There is a need to understand the relationship between strains capable of colonising the CF...

A comparison of two informative SNP-based strategies for typing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis

Background Molecular typing is integral for identifying Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains that may be shared between patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We conducted a side-by-side comparison of two P. aeruginosa genotyping methods utilising informative-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) methods; one targeting 10 P. aeruginosa SNPs and using real-time polymerase chain reaction...

Does a 10-valent pneumococcal-Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine prevent respiratory exacerbations in children with recurrent protracted bacterial bronchitis, chronic suppurative lung disease and bronchiectasis: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

Background Recurrent protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB), chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) and bronchiectasis are characterised by a chronic wet cough and are important causes of childhood respiratory morbidity globally. Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most commonly associated pathogens. As respiratory exacerbations impair quality of life and...

Azithromycin for Indigenous children with bronchiectasis: study protocol for a multi-centre randomized controlled trial

BackgroundThe prevalence of chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) and bronchiectasis unrelated to cystic fibrosis (CF) among Indigenous children in Australia, New Zealand and Alaska is very high. Antibiotics are a major component of treatment and are used both on a short or long-term basis. One aim of long-term or maintenance antibiotics is to reduce the frequency of acute...

Randomized placebo-controlled trial on azithromycin to reduce the morbidity of bronchiolitis in Indigenous Australian infants: rationale and protocol

Background Acute lower respiratory infections are the commonest cause of morbidity and potentially preventable mortality in Indigenous infants. Infancy is also a critical time for post-natal lung growth and development. Severe or repeated lower airway injury in very young children likely increases the likelihood of chronic pulmonary disorders later in life. Globally...

Longitudinal Nasopharyngeal Carriage and Antibiotic Resistance of Respiratory Bacteria in Indigenous Australian and Alaska Native Children with Bronchiectasis

Keith Grimwood Patricia C. Valery Allen C. Cheng Peter S. Morris Amanda J. Leach Heidi C. Smith-Vaughan Mark Chatfield Greg Redding Alisa L. Reasonover Gabrielle B. McCallum Lori Chikoyak Malcolm I

Bronchiectasis exacerbation study on azithromycin and amoxycillin-clavulanate for respiratory exacerbations in children (BEST-2): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Anne B Chang 0 1 Keith Grimwood Andrew C Wilson Peter P van Asperen Catherine A Byrnes Kerry-Ann F O'Grady Theo P Sloots Colin F Robertson Paul J Torzillo Gabrielle B McCallum 1 Ian B Masters 0

Antibiotics for bronchiectasis exacerbations in children: rationale and study protocol for a randomised placebo-controlled trial

Background Despite bronchiectasis being increasingly recognised as an important cause of chronic respiratory morbidity in both indigenous and non-indigenous settings globally, high quality evidence to inform management is scarce. It is assumed that antibiotics are efficacious for all bronchiectasis exacerbations, but not all practitioners agree. Inadequately treated exacerbations...

Emergence of Echovirus Type 13 as a Prominent Enterovirus

In 2001, increased activity of the rarely detected enterovirus echovirus type 13 (E13) was observed in the United States. This article describes the epidemiologic, clinical, and genetic characteristics of E13 activity in the United States in 2001, compared with E13 activity abroad in 2000–2002. In the United States, E13 accounted for 376 (24%) of the 1584 enterovirus isolates...

An Echovirus Type 33 Winter Outbreak in New Zealand

Echovirus type 33 (E33) is a relatively uncommon enterovirus. An E33 outbreak during the winter of 2000 in New Zealand led to 75 virologically-confirmed cases of E33 infection (2.6 cases per 100,000 individuals). Sixty-six (88%) of the 75 patients were aged <30 years, with the highest rates of infection recorded in Maori and Pacific ethnic groups. Overall, 47 (84%) of 56 patients...