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Taurine does not affect the composition, diversity, or metabolism of human colonic microbiota simulated in a single-batch fermentation system

, Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe University, for his supervision of human stool sampling and handling. Author Contributions Conceptualization: Kengo Sasaki, Ryohei Nomoto, Ro Osawa. Data curation: Kengo ... Sasaki, Daisuke Sasaki, Kosei Tanaka, Itsuko Fukuda. Formal analysis: Kengo Sasaki, Daisuke Sasaki, Naoko Okai, Ryohei Nomoto. Funding acquisition: Ken-ichi Yoshida, Akihiko Kondo, Ro Osawa. Investigation

Comparative metabolic state of microflora on the surface of the anode electrode in a microbial fuel cell operated at different pH conditions

The metabolic state of microflora (mixed microbial cultures) in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is currently unclear. Metabolomic analyses were conducted of microflora growing on the anodic electrodes of MFCs operated at pH 7.0, 5.5, or 4.0 and utilizing starch as the major carbon substrate. A much higher current was produced at pH 7.0 than at pH 5.5 and 4.0, correlating with an ...

Engineering cell factories for producing building block chemicals for bio-polymer synthesis

Synthetic polymers are widely used in daily life. Due to increasing environmental concerns related to global warming and the depletion of oil reserves, the development of microbial-based fermentation processes for the production of polymer building block chemicals from renewable resources is desirable to replace current petroleum-based methods. To this end, strains that efficiently ...

Organosolv pretreatment of sorghum bagasse using a low concentration of hydrophobic solvents such as 1-butanol or 1-pentanol

Background The primary components of lignocellulosic biomass such as sorghum bagasse are cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Each component can be utilized as a sustainable resource for producing biofuels and bio-based products. However, due to their complicated structures, fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass components is required. Organosolv pretreatment is an attractive ...

Moderate Thermal Stress Causes Active and Immediate Expulsion of Photosynthetically Damaged Zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium) from Corals

The foundation of coral reef biology is the symbiosis between corals and zooxanthellae (dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium). Recently, coral bleaching, which often results in mass mortality of corals and the collapse of coral reef ecosystems, has become an important issue around the world as coral reefs decrease in number year after year. To understand the mechanisms underlying ...

Increased biomass production and glycogen accumulation in apcE gene deleted Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

The effect of phycobilisome antenna-truncation in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 on biomass production and glycogen accumulation have not yet been fully clarified. To investigate these effects here, the apcE gene, which encodes the anchor protein linking the phycobilisome to the thylakoid membrane, was deleted in a glucose tolerant strain of Synechocystis sp. PCC ...

Precipitate obtained following membrane separation of hydrothermally pretreated rice straw liquid revealed by 2D NMR to have high lignin content

Background Hydrothermal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass such as rice straw can dissolve part of the lignin and hemicellulose into a liquid fraction, thus facilitating enzyme accessibility to cellulose in bioethanol production process. Lignin is awaited to be recovered after hydrothermal pretreatment for utilization as value-added chemical, and lignin recovery also means ...

Changes in Lignin and Polysaccharide Components in 13 Cultivars of Rice Straw following Dilute Acid Pretreatment as Studied by Solution-State 2D 1H-13C NMR

A renewable raw material, rice straw is pretreated for biorefinery usage. Solution-state two-dimensional (2D) 1H-13 C hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was used to analyze 13 cultivars of rice straw before and after dilute acid pretreatment, to characterize general changes in the lignin and polysaccharide components. ...

Chimeric Proton-Pumping Rhodopsins Containing the Cytoplasmic Loop of Bovine Rhodopsin

G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) transmit stimuli to intracellular signaling systems. Rhodopsin (Rh), which is a prototypical GPCR, possesses an 11-cis retinal. Photoisomerization of 11-cis to all-trans leads to structural changes in the protein of cytoplasmic loops, activating G-protein. Microbial rhodopsins are similar heptahelical membrane proteins that function as bacterial ...

Efficient production of methane from artificial garbage waste by a cylindrical bioelectrochemical reactor containing carbon fiber textiles

A cylindrical bioelectrochemical reactor (BER) containing carbon fiber textiles (CFT; BER + CFT) has characteristics of bioelectrochemical and packed-bed systems. In this study, utility of a cylindrical BER + CFT for degradation of a garbage slurry and recovery of biogas was investigated by applying 10% dog food slurry. The working electrode potential was electrochemically ...

Motivation of Japanese companies to take environmental action to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions: an econometric analysis

To analyze the motivations of Japanese companies to take environmental actions to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, we used FY2006 research data and questioned Japanese industries regarding their reduction of GHG emissions. Empirical investigations revealed that voluntary targets set by industry organizations, government requirements, and advance responses to possible ...