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9 papers found.
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Cost-effectiveness of programs to eliminate disparities in elderly vaccination rates in the United States

Background There are disparities in influenza and pneumococcal vaccination rates among elderly minority groups and little guidance as to which intervention or combination of interventions to eliminate these disparities is likely to be most cost-effective. Here, we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of four hypothetical vaccination programs designed to eliminate disparities in...

Impulse Conduction Increases Mitochondrial Transport in Adult Mammalian Peripheral Nerves In Vivo

Michael R. Duchen 0 Kenneth J. Smith 0 Ben A. Barres, Stanford University School of Medicine, United States of America 0 1 Department of Neuroinflammation, University College London, Institute of Neurology

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Lack Efficacy in the Treatment of Experimental Autoimmune Neuritis despite In Vitro Inhibition of T-Cell Proliferation

Mesenchymal stem cells have been demonstrated to ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of multiple sclerosis, prompting clinical trials in multiple sclerosis which are currently ongoing. An important question is whether this therapeutic effect generalises to other autoimmune neurological diseases. We performed two trials of efficacy of MSCs in...

Cost-Effectiveness of a Vaccine to Prevent Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia in Older Adults

Background.A vaccine to prevent herpes zoster was recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration. We sought to determine the cost-effectiveness of this vaccine for different age groups. Methods.We constructed a cost-effectiveness model, based on the Shingles Prevention Study, to compare varicella zoster vaccination with usual care for healthy adults aged >60...

MRI apparent diffusion coefficient reflects histopathologic subtype, axonal disruption, and tumor fraction in diffuse-type grade II gliomas

The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) determined from MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has shown promise for distinguishing World Health Organization grade II astrocytoma (AS) from the more prognostically favorable grade II oligodendroglioma (OD). Since mixed oligoastrocytomas (OAs) with codeletions in chromosomes 1p and 19q confer prognoses similar to those of OD, we...

Adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer: relative dose intensity and survival among veterans

Francesca E Cunningham 1 Bernadette B Heron 1 Mark Geraci 1 Vida Passero 22 Roslyn A Stone 0 21 Kenneth J Smith 20 Renee Rogers 22 Jenna Shields 22 Megan Sartore 22 D Patrick Boyle 25 Sherry Giberti 25 John

Inflammation induced by innate immunity in the central nervous system leads to primary astrocyte dysfunction followed by demyelination

Primary loss and dysfunction of astrocytes may trigger demyelination, as seen in neuromyelitis optica, an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. In most patients affected by this disease, injury to astrocytes is initiated by the action of autoantibodies targeting aquaporin 4 (AQP-4), a water channel on astrocytes. We show here that damage of astrocytes and subsequent...

To Test or to Treat? An Analysis of Influenza Testing and Antiviral Treatment Strategies Using Economic Computer Modeling

Background Due to the unpredictable burden of pandemic influenza, the best strategy to manage testing, such as rapid or polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and antiviral medications for patients who present with influenza-like illness (ILI) is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed a set of computer simulation models to evaluate the potential economic value of seven...

Cost Effectiveness of Newer Antiviral Agents for Herpes Zoster: Is the Evidence Spotty?

Famciclovir and valaciclovir were approved for use in the treatment of herpes zoster despite controversy over antiviral therapy in zoster due to high costs and uncertain benefits. To explore these issues, a Markov decision model was developed, and the incremental cost effectiveness of antiviral treatment for herpes zoster was estimated using these agents compared with no...