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13 papers found.
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Validated and longitudinally stable asthma phenotypes based on cluster analysis of the ADEPT study

Background Asthma is a disease of varying severity and differing disease mechanisms. To date, studies aimed at stratifying asthma into clinically useful phenotypes have produced a number of phenotypes that have yet to be assessed for stability and to be validated in independent cohorts. The aim of this study was to define and validate, for the first time ever, clinically driven ...

Nasal inflammation and its response to local glucocorticoid regular treatment in patients with persistent non-allergic rhinitis: a pilot study

Background The pathogenesis of non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) is still largely unknown. Furthermore, it is unclear whether there is a correlation between the effect of nasal glucocorticoids on nasal inflammation and on nasal symptoms and quality of life. Methods In this pilot study we recruited 12 healthy subjects and 24 patients with recently diagnosed persistent NAR [12 untreated ...

Pulmonary effects of inhalation of spark-generated silver nanoparticles in Brown-Norway and Sprague–Dawley rats

Background The increasing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in consumer products is concerning. We examined the potential toxic effects when inhaled in Brown-Norway (BN) rats with a pre-inflammatory state compared to Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats. Methods We determined the effect of AgNPs generated from a spark generator (mass concentration: 600–800 μg/mm 3 ; mean diameter: 13–16 nm; ...

Role of non-coding RNAs in maintaining primary airway smooth muscle cells

Background The airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell maintains its own proliferative rate and contributes to the inflammatory response in the airways, effects that are inhibited by corticosteroids, used in the treatment of airways diseases. Objective We determined the differential expression of mRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNA species (lncRNAs) in primary ASM cells ...

Impaired macrophage phagocytosis of bacteria in severe asthma

Background Bacteria are frequently cultured from sputum samples of severe asthma patients suggesting a defect in bacterial clearance from the airway. We measured the capacity of macrophages from patients with asthma to phagocytose bacteria. Methods Phagocytosis of fluorescently-labelled polystyrene beads, Haemophilus influenzae or Staphylococcus aureus by broncholaveolar lavage ...

Mobile-phone-based home exercise training program decreases systemic inflammation in COPD: a pilot study

Background Moderate-intensity exercise training improves skeletal muscle aerobic capacity and increased oxidative enzyme activity, as well as exercise tolerance in COPD patients. Methods To investigate whether the home-based exercise training program can reduce inflammatory biomarkers in patients with COPD, twelve patients using mobile phone assistance and 14 with free walk were ...

Blood neutrophil activation markers in severe asthma: lack of inhibition by prednisolone therapy

Background Neutrophils are increased in the airways and in induced sputum of severe asthma patients. We determined the expression of activation markers from circulating neutrophils in severe asthma, and their supressibility by corticosteroids. Methods We compared blood neutrophils from mild, moderate-to-severe and severe steroid-dependent asthma, and non-asthmatics (n = 10 each). ...

Cigarette Smoke Exposure Alters mSin3a and Mi-2α/β Expression; implications in the control of pro-inflammatory gene transcription and glucocorticoid function

Background The key co-repressor complex components HDAC-2, Mi-2α/β and mSin3a are all critical to the regulation of gene transcription. HDAC-2 function is impaired by oxidative stress in a PI3Kδ dependant manner which may be involved in the chronic glucocorticoid insensitive inflammation in the lungs of COPD patients. However, the impact of cigarette smoke exposure on the ...

Expression of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in chronic idiopathic cough

In patients with chronic idiopathic cough, there is a chronic inflammatory response together with evidence of airway wall remodelling and an increase in airway epithelial nerves expressing TRPV-1. We hypothesised that these changes could result from an increase in growth factors such as TGFβ and neurotrophins. We recruited 13 patients with persistent non-asthmatic cough despite ...

Corticosteroid suppression of lipoxin A4 and leukotriene B4from alveolar macrophages in severe asthma

Background An imbalance in the generation of pro-inflammatory leukotrienes, and counter-regulatory lipoxins is present in severe asthma. We measured leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and lipoxin A4 (LXA4) production by alveolar macrophages (AMs) and studied the impact of corticosteroids. Methods AMs obtained by fiberoptic bronchoscopy from 14 non-asthmatics, 12 non-severe and 11 severe ...

Characteristics and outcome for admissions to adult, general critical care units with acute severe asthma: a secondary analysis of the ICNARC Case Mix Programme Database

Introduction This report describes the case mix, outcome and activity (duration of intensive care unit [ICU] and hospital stay, inter-hospital transfer, and readmissions to the ICU) for admissions to ICUs for acute severe asthma, and investigates the effect of case mix factors on outcome. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a high-quality clinical database (the ...

Characteristics and outcome for admissions to adult, general critical care units with acute severe asthma: a secondary analysis of the ICNARC Case Mix Programme Database

Introduction This report describes the case mix, outcome and activity (duration of intensive care unit [ICU] and hospital stay, inter-hospital transfer, and readmissions to the ICU) for admissions to ICUs for acute severe asthma, and investigates the effect of case mix factors on outcome. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a high-quality clinical database (the ...

Persistence of lung inflammation and lung cytokines with high-resolution CT abnormalities during recovery from SARS

Background During the acute phase of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), mononuclear cells infiltration, alveolar cell desquamation and hyaline membrane formation have been described, together with dysregulation of plasma cytokine levels. Persistent high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) abnormalities occur in SARS patients up to 40 days after recovery. Methods To ...