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The neuropeptide genes SST, TAC1, HCRT, NPY, and GAL are powerful epigenetic biomarkers in head and neck cancer: a site-specific analysis

BackgroundStaging and pathological grading systems are convenient but imperfect predictors of recurrence in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Identifying biomarkers for HNSCC that will progress and cause death is a critical research area, particularly if the biomarker can be linked to selection of patients. Therefore, to identify potential alternative prognostic...

Epigenetic silencing of SALL3 is an independent predictor of poor survival in head and neck cancer

Background This study examined Sal-like protein (SALL)3 methylation profiles of head and neck cancer (HNSCC) patients at diagnosis and follow-up and evaluated their prognostic significance and value as a biomarker. SALL3 expression was examined in a panel of cell lines by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The methylation status of the SALL3...

Human papillomavirus-associated small cell carcinoma/neuroendocrine carcinoma of the oropharynx: a report of two cases

IntroductionSmall cell carcinoma/neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNEC) of the oropharynx is uncommon. Two cases of SCNEC in an 81-year-old woman and in a 54-year-old man are presented here.Case descriptionWe have documented two cases of SCNEC arising in the oropharynx with evidence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Histologically, both cases were classified as poorly...

Late recurrence of breast carcinoma metastasis to the hypopharynx: a case report

Background We report a rare case of a patient with a hypopharyngeal metastasis from breast cancer. Case presentation Isolated breast cancer metastasis to the hypopharynx has been previously reported in only one autopsy case. Herein, we report a 56-year-old woman with metastases to the hypopharynx almost 24 years after receiving a mastectomy and chemotherapy to treat primary...

Abnormal Expressions of DNA Glycosylase Genes NEIL1, NEIL2, and NEIL3 Are Associated with Somatic Mutation Loads in Human Cancer

 Masanori Goto,3 Hong Tao,1 Yusuke Inoue,1 Satoki Nakamura,1 Kiyoshi Misawa,4 Hiroyuki Mineta,4 and Haruhiko Sugimura1 1Department of Tumor Pathology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431

Aberrant Methylation Inactivates Somatostatin and Somatostatin Receptor Type 1 in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Purpose The aim of this study was to define somatostatin (SST) and somatostatin receptor type 1 (SSTR1) methylation profiles for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) tumors at diagnosis and follow up and to evaluate their prognostic significance and value as a biomarker. Methods Gene expression was measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Promoter methylation status was...

Rare case of malignant transformation of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis associated with human papillomavirus type 6 infection and p53 overexpression

Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP), a chronic upper respiratory condition characterized by diffuse multiple recurring papillomas, is thought to result from human papillomavirus (HPV) type 6 or 11 infection. Although RRP is an intractable disease, malignant transformation of RRP is rare. The underlying mechanism, however, has not been elucidated. We describe the clinical...

Association of SLC26A4 muations with clinical features and thyroid function in deaf infants with enlarged vestibular aqueduct

Pendred syndrome and non-syndromic recessive deafness associated with enlarged vestibular aqueduct (NSRD with EVA) are caused by mutations in the SLC26A4 (PDS) gene. Unlike NSRD with EVA, Pendred syndrome is characterized by goiter, which may be present after early adulthood. However, the clinical diagnosis of these two disorders is difficult in deaf children. Expression of the...