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The Scent of Royalty: A P450 Gene Signals Reproductive Status in a Social Insect

Cooperation requires communication; this applies to animals and humans alike. The main communication means differ between taxa and social insects (ants, termites, and some bees and wasps) lack the cognitive abilities of most social vertebrates. Central to the regulation of the reproductive harmony in insect societies is the production of a royalty scent which signals the...

Sequence and Expression Characteristics of Long Noncoding RNAs in Honey Bee Caste Development – Potential Novel Regulators for Transgressive Ovary Size

. Humann 0 Gustavo J. Tiberio 0 Klaus Hartfelder 0 Partha Mukhopadhyay, National Institutes of Health, United States of America 0 Departamento de Biologia Celular e Molecular e Bioagentes Patogenicos

The role of juvenile hormone in dominance behavior, reproduction and cuticular pheromone signaling in the caste-flexible epiponine wasp, Synoeca surinama

Background The popular view on insect sociality is that of a harmonious division of labor among two morphologically distinct and functionally non-overlapping castes. But this is a highly derived state and not a prerequisite for a functional society. Rather, caste-flexibility is a central feature in many eusocial wasps, where adult females have the potential to become queens or...

Identification of differentially expressed genes in female Drosophila antonietae and Drosophila meridionalis in response to host cactus odor

Background Studies of insect-plant interactions have provided critical insights into the ecology and evolution of adaptive processes within and among species. Cactophilic Drosophila species have received much attention because larval development occurs in the necrotic tissues of cacti, and both larvae and adults feed on these tissues. Such Drosophila-cactus interactions include...

Juvenile Hormone Biosynthesis Gene Expression in the corpora allata of Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L.) Female Castes

Juvenile hormone (JH) controls key events in the honey bee life cycle, viz. caste development and age polyethism. We quantified transcript abundance of 24 genes involved in the JH biosynthetic pathway in the corpora allata-corpora cardiaca (CA-CC) complex. The expression of six of these genes showing relatively high transcript abundance was contrasted with CA size, hemolymph JH...

Molecular Analysis of Aedes aegypti Classical Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases Uncovers an Ortholog of Mammalian PTP-1B Implicated in the Control of Egg Production in Mosquitoes

Background Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases (PTPs) are enzymes that catalyze phosphotyrosine dephosphorylation and modulate cell differentiation, growth and metabolism. In mammals, PTPs play a key role in the modulation of canonical pathways involved in metabolism and immunity. PTP1B is the prototype member of classical PTPs and a major target for treating human diseases, such as...

Suppression subtractive hybridization analysis reveals expression of conserved and novel genes in male accessory glands of the ant Leptothorax gredleri

Background During mating, insect males eject accessory gland proteins (Acps) into the female genital tract. These substances are known to affect female post-mating behavior and physiology. In addition, they may harm the female, e.g., in reducing its lifespan. This is interpreted as a consequence of sexual antagonistic co-evolution. Whereas sexual conflict abounds in non-social...

The genomes of two key bumblebee species with primitive eusocial organization

Background The shift from solitary to social behavior is one of the major evolutionary transitions. Primitively eusocial bumblebees are uniquely placed to illuminate the evolution of highly eusocial insect societies. Bumblebees are also invaluable natural and agricultural pollinators, and there is widespread concern over recent population declines in some species. High-quality...

The use of Open Reading frame ESTs (ORESTES) for analysis of the honey bee transcriptome

Background The ongoing efforts to sequence the honey bee genome require additional initiatives to define its transcriptome. Towards this end, we employed the Open Reading frame ESTs (ORESTES) strategy to generate profiles for the life cycle of Apis mellifera workers. Results Of the 5,021 ORESTES, 35.2% matched with previously deposited Apis ESTs. The analysis of the remaining...