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Preventing heat illness in the anticipated hot climate of the Tokyo 2020 Summer Olympic Games

Amid the effects of global warming, Tokyo has become an increasingly hot city, especially during the summertime. To prepare for the upcoming 2020 Summer Olympics and Paralympics in Tokyo, all participants, including the athletes, staff, and spectators, will need to familiarize themselves with Tokyo’s hot and humid summer conditions. This paper uses the wet-bulb globe temperature ...

Psychosocial factors and colleagues’ perceptions of return-to-work opportunities for workers with a psychiatric disorder: a Japanese population-based study

Background This study examined associations between psychosocial factors and the perception that adequate employment opportunities might not be provided for people with limited work capacity due to psychiatric disorders. Methods We conducted an online, cross-sectional survey of 3,710 employed individuals aged 20 to 69 years in Japan. Our survey included the Brief Job Stress ...

Nurses’ willingness to care for patients infected with HIV or Hepatitis B / C in Vietnam

Objectives This study examined the factors associated with nurses’ willingness to care for patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or hepatitis B or C virus (HBV/HCV) in Vietnam. Methods A cross-section of 400 Vietnamese nurses from two hospitals were selected using stratified random sampling, to whom a self-administered questionnaire was administered which ...

Assessing the Impact of Nationwide Smoking Cessation Interventions among Employed, Middle-Aged Japanese Men, 2005-2010

Background A variety of tobacco control interventions have become available in Japan over the past decade, however, the magnitude to which they have impacted on smoking rates may have varied by socioeconomic status such as job content, particularly for middle-aged men who were formerly long-term smokers. We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the differences between ...

Reluctance to care for patients with HIV or hepatitis B / C in Japan

Background Healthcare workers are faced with various professional dilemmas in the workplace, including at times, a reluctance to care for particular patients. This study investigated personal attitudes and factors influencing Japanese nurses’ reluctance to care for patients infected with HIV, Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), or Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). Methods Participants completed an ...

Mistrust surrounding vaccination recommendations by the Japanese government: results from a national survey of working-age individuals

Background Considering that public attitudes on vaccine safety and effectiveness are known to influence the success of vaccination campaigns, an increased understanding of socio-demographic characteristics might help improve future communication strategies and lead to greater rates of vaccination uptake. This study investigated associations between mistrust for governmental vaccine ...

A Socio-Demographic Examination of Adults Responding to Governmental Vaccination Recommendations during the Japanese Rubella Outbreak of 2013

Background In 2013 a rubella outbreak occurred among Japanese people of working-age which resulted in 14,357 reported cases. The Japanese government subsequently recommended voluntary vaccination or rubella antibody testing for young women (15–49 years of age) who were planning to conceive and for adult men, children, and other persons in potential contact with pregnant women at ...

Knowledge of HBV and HCV and Individuals’ Attitudes Toward HBV- and HCV-Infected Colleagues: A National Cross-Sectional Study among a Working Population in Japan

Prejudice and discrimination in the workplace regarding the risk of transmission of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) are increased by excess concerns due to a lack of relevant knowledge. Education to increase knowledge about HBV and HCV and their prevention could be the first step to reduce prejudice and discrimination. This study aimed to determine the ...

Reasons for and against receiving influenza vaccination in a working age population in Japan: a national cross-sectional study

Background To improve influenza vaccination coverage in the working age population, it is necessary to understand the current status and awareness of influenza vaccination. This study aimed to determine influenza vaccination coverage in Japan and reasons for receiving the vaccine or not. Methods An anonymous internet-based survey was performed in September 2011. Our target study ...

Sociodemographic Factors and Prejudice toward HIV and Hepatitis B/C Status in a Working-Age Population: Results from a National, Cross-Sectional Study in Japan

Background In many countries, HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected individuals may face discrimination and mistreatment from coworkers. Effective interventions to reduce workplace discrimination are therefore needed to protect these vulnerable populations. The current study investigated potential associations between sociodemographic factors and ...

Work Content and Serious Mental Illness among Middle-Aged Men: Results from a 6-Year Longitudinal Study in Japan

Objective The present study aimed to determine prospective associations between work content after a working life of more than 20 years and serious mental illness among Japanese men aged 50 to 59 years, using a nationwide population-based survey. Methods Data were extracted from a national longitudinal survey of middle-aged and elderly persons previously conducted by the Ministry ...

Influenza Vaccination Uptake among the Working Age Population of Japan: Results from a National Cross-Sectional Survey

Background Influenza vaccination rates among Japanese people of working age (20–69 years) is currently suboptimal, and the reasons for this have not been clearly elucidated. This study examined factors associated with vaccination intention among the working age population in Japan during September 2011, one-month prior to influenza vaccination becoming available. ...

Associations between psychological distress and the most concerning present personal problems among working-age men in Japan

Background Personal problems are known to influence mental health among workers. The current study investigated the most concerning present personal problems which have the greatest impact on psychological distress among working-age Japanese men, rather than issues relating to work tasks or duties. Methods We obtained data from the 2010 Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions ...

Risk Factors of Household Transmission of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among Patients Treated with Antivirals: A Prospective Study at a Primary Clinic in Japan

Background Household transmission of influenza can affect the daily lives of patients and their families and be a trigger for community transmission, thus it is necessary to take precautions to prevent household transmission. We aimed to determine the risks of household transmission of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus from an index patient who visited a primary clinic and was ...

Wearing face masks in public during the influenza season may reflect other positive hygiene practices in Japan

Background Although the wearing of face masks in public has not been recommended for preventing influenza, these devices are often worn in many Asian countries during the influenza season. In Japan, it is thought that such behavior may be an indicator of other positive hygiene practices. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine if wearing a face mask in public is ...

Large-Scale RNA Interference Screening in Mammalian Cells Identifies Novel Regulators of Mutant Huntingtin Aggregation

In polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases including Huntington's disease (HD), mutant proteins containing expanded polyQ stretch form aggregates in neurons. Genetic or RNAi screenings in yeast, C. elegans or Drosophila have identified multiple genes modifying polyQ aggregation, a few of which are confirmed effective in mammals. However, the overall molecular mechanism underlying polyQ ...

Association of Knowledge of HIV and Other Factors with Individuals’ Attitudes toward HIV Infection: A National Cross-Sectional Survey among the Japanese Non-Medical Working Population

Background The stigma of and discrimination because of HIV has been described as the most important obstacle to prevention and treatment efforts. The purpose of this study was to investigate negative attitudes and prejudice toward HIV among the Japanese non-medical working population and to explore contributing factors. Methods An online anonymous nationwide survey involving ...

Association between asymptomatic hyperuricemia and new-onset chronic kidney disease in Japanese male workers: a long-term retrospective cohort study

Background Hyperuricemia is prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We explored the hypothesis that asymptmatic hyperuricemia may be associated with new-onset CKD. Methods The participants were all male factory workers in Kanagawa, Japan (n = 1,285). All were over 40 years of age and had undergone annual health examinations from 1990 to 2007. Individuals with a ...

Incidence Rate of Needlestick and Sharps Injuries in 67 Japanese Hospitals: A National Surveillance Study

Background Determining incidence rates of needlestick and sharps injuries (NSIs) using data from multiple hospitals may help hospitals to compare their in-house data with national averages and thereby institute relevant measures to minimize NSIs. We aimed to determine the incidence rate of NSIs using the nationwide EPINet surveillance system. Methodology/Principal Findings Data ...