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Search: authors:"Kristina Nyström"

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Entrepreneurship after displacement

According to Hoetker and Agarwal (Academy of Management Journal, 50(2), 446–469, 2007), research on knowledge transfers related to business closures is scarce. This paper intends to fill the knowledge gap on the transition to entrepreneurship after a business closure. This paper studies which employees are most likely to start an entrepreneurial venture after being affected by a...

Randomized Trial Evaluating the Impact of Ribavirin Mono-Therapy and Double Dosing on Viral Kinetics, Ribavirin Pharmacokinetics and Anemia in Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1 Infection

In this pilot study (RibaC), 58 hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infected treatment-naïve patients were randomized to (i) 2 weeks ribavirin double dosing concomitant with pegylated interferon-α (pegIFN-α), (ii) 4 weeks ribavirin mono-therapy prior to adding pegIFN-α, or (iii) standard-of-care (SOC) ribavirin dosing concurrent with pegIFN-α. Four weeks of ribavirin mono-therapy...

A Strategy for O-Glycoproteomics of Enveloped Viruses—the O-Glycoproteome of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

Glycosylation of viral envelope proteins is important for infectivity and interaction with host immunity, however, our current knowledge of the functions of glycosylation is largely limited to N-glycosylation because it is difficult to predict and identify site-specific O-glycosylation. Here, we present a novel proteome-wide discovery strategy for O-glycosylation sites on viral...

Virus-induced appearance of the selectin ligand sLeX in herpes simplex virus type 1-infected T-cells: Involvement of host and viral factors

Circulating leukocytes that express selectin ligands such as the carbohydrate epitope sialyl Lewis X (sLeX) may interact with endothelial selectins, resulting in transmigration of the leukocyte across the endothelial wall to adjacent tissue. Due to the potential of selectin–ligand interactions as targets in viral pathogenesis, we aimed at determining whether herpes simplex virus...

Neofunctionalization of the Sec1 α1,2fucosyltransferase Paralogue in Leporids Contributes to Glycan Polymorphism and Resistance to Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus

RHDV (rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus), a virulent calicivirus, causes high mortalities in European rabbit populations (Oryctolagus cuniculus). It uses α1,2fucosylated glycans, histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), as attachment factors, with their absence or low expression generating resistance to the disease. Synthesis of these glycans requires an α1,2fucosyltransferase. In...

Activation of host antiviral RNA-sensing factors necessary for herpes simplex virus type 1-activated transcription of host cell fucosyltransferase genes FUT3, FUT5, and FUT6 and subsequent expression of sLex in virus-infected cells

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) induces expression of a selectin receptor, the carbohydrate epitope sialyl Lewis X (sLex), at the surface of infected cells. The molecular background to this phenomenon is that a viral immediate early RNA interacts with as yet unidentified host factors, eventually resulting in transcription of three dormant host fucosyltransferase genes (FUT3...

Induction of sialyl-Lex expression by herpes simplex virus type 1 is dependent on viral immediate early RNA-activated transcription of host fucosyltransferase genes

We have previously shown that varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection of diploid human fibroblasts (HEL) results in neo-expression of Lewis antigens sialyl Lewis x (sLex) and Lewis y (Ley), respectively, after transcriptional activation of different combinations of dormant human fucosyltransferase genes (FUT1, FUT3, FUT5, and FUT6), whose gene products...

Histo-Blood Group Antigens Act as Attachment Factors of Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Infection in a Virus Strain-Dependent Manner

Rabbit Hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), a calicivirus of the Lagovirus genus, and responsible for rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD), kills rabbits between 48 to 72 hours post infection with mortality rates as high as 50–90%. Caliciviruses, including noroviruses and RHDV, have been shown to bind histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) and human non-secretor individuals lacking ABH...

Virus-induced transcriptional activation of host FUT genes associated with neo-expression of Ley in cytomegalovirus-infected and sialyl-Lex in varicella-zoster virus-infected diploid human cells

Cell surface carbohydrate structures including sialyl-Lewis X (sLex) and Lewis Y (Ley) are important ligands in normal and malignant tissues. The aim here was to determine the possible influence on the expression of such antigens by two viruses varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) involved in persistent infections of humans. We found that infection of human...

Basic amino acids as modulators of an O-linked glycosylation signal of the herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein gC: functional roles in viral infectivity

The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein gC-1 is engaged both in viral attachment and viral immune evasion mechanisms in the infected host. Besides several N-linked glycans, gC-1 contains numerous O-linked glycans, mainly localized in two pronase-resistant clusters in the N-terminal domain of gC-1. In the present study we construct and characterize one gC-1 mutant...