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A diagnostic and epidemiologic investigation of acute febrile illness (AFI) in Kilombero, Tanzania

National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR), or Georgetown University. Author Contributions Conceptualization: Christine Hercik, Leonard Cosmas, Clayton Onyango, Barry S. Fields, Sayoki Mfinanga, Joel ... M. Montgomery. Data curation: Christine Hercik, Leonard Cosmas, Ondari D. Mogeni, Wanze Kohi, Caroline Ochieng, Clayton Onyango, Barry S. Fields, Sayoki Mfinanga, Joel M. Montgomery. Formal analysis

Population-Based Incidence Rates of Diarrheal Disease Associated with Norovirus, Sapovirus, and Astrovirus in Kenya

Background Diarrheal diseases remain a major cause of mortality in Africa and worldwide. While the burden of rotavirus is well described, population-based rates of disease caused by norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus are lacking, particularly in developing countries. Methods Data on diarrhea cases were collected through a population-based surveillance platform including...

Malaria Parasitemia Among Febrile Patients Seeking Clinical Care at an Outpatient Health Facility in an Urban Informal Settlement Area in Nairobi, Kenya

, Georgia; U. S. President's Malaria Initiative, Nairobi , Kenya 2 Authors' addresses: Henry N. Njuguna , Joel M. Montgomery, Leonard Cosmas, Joseph O. Oundo, and Robert F. Breiman , Division of Global Health

Burden of Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella Disease in a Rural and Urban Site in Kenya, 2009–2014

Background. Invasive infections with nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) lead to bacteremia in children and adults and are an important cause of illness in Africa; however, few data on the burden of NTS bacteremia are available. We sought to determine the burden of invasive NTS disease in a rural and urban setting in Kenya. Methods. We conducted the study in a population-based...

The Unrecognized Burden of Influenza in Young Kenyan Children, 2008-2012

Influenza-associated disease burden among children in tropical sub-Saharan Africa is not well established, particularly outside of the 2009 pandemic period. We estimated the burden of influenza in children aged 0–4 years through population-based surveillance for influenza-like illness (ILI) and acute lower respiratory tract illness (ALRI). Household members meeting ILI or ALRI...

Correction: Use of Population-based Surveillance to Define the High Incidence of Shigellosis in an Urban Slum in Nairobi, Kenya

N. Njuguna Leonard Cosmas John Williamson Dhillon Nyachieo Beatrice Olack John B. Ochieng Newton Wamola Joseph O. Oundo Daniel R. Feikin Eric D. Mintz Robert F. Breima N In the ''Results'' section of

The Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program (TSAP): Clinical, Diagnostic, and Epidemiological Methodologies

Espinoza 11 21 Jessica Fung Deerin 11 21 Nagla Gasmelseed 4 11 Amy Gassama Sow 1 2 11 Justin Im 11 21 Karen H. Keddy 0 10 11 Leonard Cosmas 11 27 Jürgen May 9 11 Christian G. Meyer 11 12 Eric D. Mintz 11 13

Use of Population-based Surveillance to Define the High Incidence of Shigellosis in an Urban Slum in Nairobi, Kenya

Background Worldwide, Shigella causes an estimated 160 million infections and >1 million deaths annually. However, limited incidence data are available from African urban slums. We investigated the epidemiology of shigellosis and drug susceptibility patterns within a densely populated urban settlement in Nairobi, Kenya through population-based surveillance. Methods Surveillance...

Severe acute respiratory infection in children in a densely populated urban slum in Kenya, 2007–2011

Background Reducing acute respiratory infection burden in children in Africa remains a major priority and challenge. We analyzed data from population-based infectious disease surveillance for severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) among children <5 years of age in Kibera, a densely populated urban slum in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods Surveillance was conducted among a monthly mean of...

Epidemiology, Seasonality, and Burden of Influenza and Influenza-Like Illness in Urban and Rural Kenya, 2007–2010

Background. The epidemiology and burden of influenza remain poorly defined in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2005, the Kenya Medical Research Institute and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–Kenya have conducted population-based infectious disease surveillance in Kibera, an urban informal settlement in Nairobi, and in Lwak, a rural community in western Kenya. Methods...

Epidemiology of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Rural and Urban Kenya

Background. Information on the epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in Africa is limited for crowded urban areas and for rural areas where the prevalence of malaria is high. Methods. At referral facilities in rural western Kenya and a Nairobi slum, we collected nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal (NP/OP) swab specimens from patients with influenza-like illness...

Secondary Household Transmission of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus among an Urban and Rural Population in Kenya, 2009–2010

Background In Kenya, >1,200 laboratory-confirmed 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) (pH1N1) cases occurred since June 2009. We used population-based infectious disease surveillance (PBIDS) data to assess household transmission of pH1N1 in urban Nairobi (Kibera) and rural Lwak. Methods We defined a pH1N1 patient as laboratory-confirmed pH1N1 infection among PBIDS participants during...

The Burden of Common Infectious Disease Syndromes at the Clinic and Household Level from Population-Based Surveillance in Rural and Urban Kenya

Background Characterizing infectious disease burden in Africa is important for prioritizing and targeting limited resources for curative and preventive services and monitoring the impact of interventions. Methods From June 1, 2006 to May 31, 2008, we estimated rates of acute lower respiratory tract illness (ALRI), diarrhea and acute febrile illness (AFI) among >50,000 persons...

Differing Burden and Epidemiology of Non-Typhi Salmonella Bacteremia in Rural and Urban Kenya, 2006–2009

Background The epidemiology of non-Typhi Salmonella (NTS) bacteremia in Africa will likely evolve as potential co-factors, such as HIV, malaria, and urbanization, also change. Methods As part of population-based surveillance among 55,000 persons in malaria-endemic, rural and malaria-nonendemic, urban Kenya from 2006–2009, blood cultures were obtained from patients presenting to...

Population-Based Incidence of Typhoid Fever in an Urban Informal Settlement and a Rural Area in Kenya: Implications for Typhoid Vaccine Use in Africa

Background High rates of typhoid fever in children in urban settings in Asia have led to focus on childhood immunization in Asian cities, but not in Africa, where data, mostly from rural areas, have shown low disease incidence. We set out to compare incidence of typhoid fever in a densely populated urban slum and a rural community in Kenya, hypothesizing higher rates in the urban...