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Measuring the expected synergy in Spanish regional and national systems of innovation

Amsterdam , The Netherlands 2 & Loet Leydesdorff This paper examines the effect of synergy at the geographical, technological, and organizational levels on the structure of the innovative system in Spain

Mapping patent classifications: portfolio and statistical analysis, and the comparison of strengths and weaknesses

The Cooperative Patent Classifications (CPC) recently developed cooperatively by the European and US Patent Offices provide a new basis for mapping patents and portfolio analysis. CPC replaces International Patent Classifications (IPC) of the World Intellectual Property Organization. In this study, we update our routines previously based on IPC for CPC and use the occasion for ...

“Open innovation” and “triple helix” models of innovation: can synergy in innovation systems be measured?

Leydesdorff 0 Inga Ivanova 0 Amsterdam School of Communication Research (ASCoR), University of Amsterdam , PO Box 15793, 1001, NG, Amsterdam , The Netherlands The model of “Open Innovations” (OI) can be

Generating clustered journal maps: an automated system for hierarchical classification

Journal maps and classifications for 11,359 journals listed in the combined Journal Citation Reports 2015 of the Science and Social Sciences Citation Indexes are provided at https://​leydesdorff.​github.​io/​journals/​ and http://​www.​leydesdorff.​net/​jcr15. A routine using VOSviewer for integrating the journal mapping and their hierarchical clusterings is also made available. In ...

University-Industry Collaboration in China and the USA: A Bibliometric Comparison

In this study, university-industry collaborations in China and the USA are analyzed in terms of co-authored publications indexed in the Web of Science (WoS). Results show a wide gap between China and the USA: Chinese universities are much less active in collaborations with industry in terms of either publication productivity or collaboration intensity. In selecting local and ...

Professional and citizen bibliometrics: complementarities and ambivalences in the development and use of indicators—a state-of-the-art report

Bibliometric indicators such as journal impact factors, h-indices, and total citation counts are algorithmic artifacts that can be used in research evaluation and management. These artifacts have no meaning by themselves, but receive their meaning from attributions in institutional practices. We distinguish four main stakeholders in these practices: (1) producers of bibliometric ...

Can technology life-cycles be indicated by diversity in patent classifications? The crucial role of variety

In a previous study of patent classifications in nine material technologies for photovoltaic cells, Leydesdorff et al. (Scientometrics 102(1):629–651, 2015) reported cyclical patterns in the longitudinal development of Rao–Stirling diversity. We suggested that these cyclical patterns can be used to indicate technological life-cycles. Upon decomposition, however, the cycles are ...

Can intellectual processes in the sciences also be simulated? The anticipation and visualization of possible future states

Socio-cognitive action reproduces and changes both social and cognitive structures. The analytical distinction between these dimensions of structure provides us with richer models of scientific development. In this study, I assume that (1) social structures organize expectations into belief structures that can be attributed to individuals and communities; (2) expectations are ...

Cited references and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) as two different knowledge representations: clustering and mappings at the paper level

For the biomedical sciences, the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) make available a rich feature which cannot currently be merged properly with widely used citing/cited data. Here, we provide methods and routines that make MeSH terms amenable to broader usage in the study of science indicators: using Web-of-Science (WoS) data, one can generate the matrix of citing versus cited ...

An evaluation of impacts in “Nanoscience & nanotechnology”: steps towards standards for citation analysis

Loet Leydesdorff 0 0 L. Leydesdorff (&) Amsterdam School of Communications Research (ASCoR), University of Amsterdam , Kloveniersburgwal 48, 1012 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands One is inclined to

The Continuing Growth of Global Cooperation Networks in Research: A Conundrum for National Governments

Global collaboration continues to grow as a share of all scientific cooperation, measured as coauthorships of peer-reviewed, published papers. The percent of all scientific papers that are internationally coauthored has more than doubled in 20 years, and they account for all the growth in output among the scientifically advanced countries. Emerging countries, particularly China, ...

Alternatives to the journal impact factor: I3 and the top-10% (or top-25%?) of the most-highly cited papers

Journal impact factors (IFs) can be considered historically as the first attempt to normalize citation distributions by using averages over 2 years. However, it has been recognized that citation distributions vary among fields of science and that one needs to normalize for this. Furthermore, the mean—or any central-tendency statistics—is not a good representation of the citation ...

How have the Eastern European countries of the former Warsaw Pact developed since 1990? A bibliometric study

Did the demise of the Soviet Union in 1991 influence the scientific performance of the researchers in Eastern European countries? Did this historical event affect international collaboration by researchers from the Eastern European countries with those of Western countries? Did it also change international collaboration among researchers from the Eastern European countries? Trying ...

Sociological and Communication-Theoretical Perspectives on the Commercialization of the Sciences

Loet Leydesdorff 0 0 L. Leydesdorff (&) Amsterdam School of Communication Research (ASCoR), University of Amsterdam , Kloveniersburgwal 48, 1012 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands Both self-organization

Macro-Indicators of Citation Impacts of Six Prolific Countries: InCites Data and the Statistical Significance of Trends

Using the InCites tool of Thomson Reuters, this study compares normalized citation impact values calculated for China, Japan, France, Germany, United States, and the UK throughout the time period from 1981 to 2010. InCites offers a unique opportunity to study the normalized citation impacts of countries using (i) a long publication window (1981 to 2010), (ii) a differentiation in ...

“Structuration” by intellectual organization: the configuration of knowledge in relations among structural components in networks of science

Loet Leydesdorff 0 0 L. Leydesdorff (&) Amsterdam School of Communication Research (ASCoR), University of Amsterdam , Kloveniersburgwal 48, 1012 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands Using aggregated

The Triple Helix, Quadruple Helix, …, and an N-Tuple of Helices: Explanatory Models for Analyzing the Knowledge-Based Economy?

Loet Leydesdorff 0 ) Amsterdam School of Communication Research (ASCoR), University of Amsterdam , Kloveniersburgwal 48, 1012 CX Amsterdam, the Netherlands Using the Triple Helix model of

Testing differences statistically with the Leiden ranking

The Leiden ranking 2011/2012 provides the Proportion top-10% publications (PP top-10% ) as a new indicator. This indicator allows for testing performance differences between two universities for statistical significance.

A rejoinder on energy versus impact indicators

Citation distributions are so skewed that using the mean or any other central tendency measure is ill-advised. Unlike G. Prathap’s scalar measures (Energy, Exergy, and Entropy or EEE), the Integrated Impact Indicator (I3) is based on non-parametric statistics using the (100) percentiles of the distribution. Observed values can be tested against expected ones; impact can be ...