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Toll-like receptor 2-mediated NF-kappa B pathway activation in ocular surface epithelial cells

Background Gram-positive bacteria stimulate Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and then activate the pro-inflammatory nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. As the human ocular surface is heavily colonised by gram-positive cocci bacteria, a balance of activation/repression of NF-κB target genes is essential to avoid uncontrolled infection or autoimmune-related inflammation. It is...

Systematic review of randomized controlled trials in the treatment of dry eye disease in Sjogren syndrome

allowing this multi-disciplinary collaboration to be possible. Availability of data and material Not applicable. Authors’ contribution Dr. Kendrick Co Shih, Dr. Christie Lun and Dr. Louis Tong were

Systematic review of randomized controlled trials in the treatment of dry eye disease in Sjogren syndrome

allowing this multi-disciplinary collaboration to be possible. Availability of data and material Not applicable. Authors’ contribution Dr. Kendrick Co Shih, Dr. Christie Lun and Dr. Louis Tong were

Systematic review of randomized controlled trials in the treatment of dry eye disease in Sjogren syndrome

of data and material Not applicable. Authors’ contribution Dr. Kendrick Co Shih, Dr. Christie Lun and Dr. Louis Tong were responsible for study design/planning, data collection, data analysis and

Systematic review of randomized controlled trials in the treatment of dry eye disease in Sjogren syndrome

allowing this multi-disciplinary collaboration to be possible. Availability of data and material Not applicable. Authors’ contribution Dr. Kendrick Co Shih, Dr. Christie Lun and Dr. Louis Tong were

Systematic review of randomized controlled trials in the treatment of dry eye disease in Sjogren syndrome

’ contribution Dr. Kendrick Co Shih, Dr. Christie Lun and Dr. Louis Tong were responsible for study design/planning, data collection, data analysis and writing up the manuscript. Dr. Bernard Thong and Prof

The effect of intravitreal injections on dry eye, and proposed management strategies

The effect of intravitreal injections on dry eye, and proposed management strategies Augustinus Laude,1–3 Jimmy WK Lim,1,2 Vishwanath Srinagesh,4 Louis Tong2,5–7 1National Healthcare Group Eye Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 2Singapore Eye Research Institute, 3Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore; 4Krieger Eye Institute, Baltimore, MD...

Need for Animal Models of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction

Evaporative dry eye has gained increasing interest in recent years in academia, pharmaceutical, and medical device industries. The main cause of this type of dry eye is attributed to meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). MGD is a diffuse abnormality of the meibomian glands characterised by terminal duct obstruction and eventually leading to signs and symptoms of dry eye. There have...

Practical issues concerning tear protein assays in dry eye

Dry eye is a common clinical condition diagnosed by cumulative evidence of symptoms and signs. Many new treatments in dry eye are either expensive, invasive, have potential for side effects, or are not easily accessible. In severe dry eye, the ideal modality of treatment to begin with is often not clear as specific molecular disturbances are not evident from just examination of...

Intra-observer and inter-observer repeatability of ocular surface interferometer in measuring lipid layer thickness

. Acknowledgements Louis Tong was supported by the National Medical Research Council, Singapore (NMRC/CSA/045/2012) and the Biomedical Research Council, Singapore (BMRC (TCRP) 10/1/35/19/670 R828). Grant support This

Ocular surface disease in posttrabeculectomy/mitomycin C patients

Ocular surface disease in posttrabeculectomy/mitomycin C patients Janice Lam,1,2 Tina T Wong,1–4 Louis Tong1–3,5 1Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore; 2Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore; 4School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological...

Rho GTPases and Regulation of Cell Migration and Polarization in Human Corneal Epithelial Cells

PurposeEpithelial cell migration is required for regeneration of tissues and can be defective in a number of ocular surface diseases. This study aimed to determine the expression pattern of Rho family small G-proteins in human corneal epithelial cells to test their requirement in directional cell migration. MethodsRho family small G-protein expression was assessed by reverse...

Evaluation of Global Differential Gene and Protein Expression in Primary Pterygium: S100A8 and S100A9 as Possible Drivers of a Signaling Network

Purpose Pterygium is a wing shaped fibrovascular growth on the ocular surface, characterized by fibrosis, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix remodeling, and inflammatory infiltrates. Epidemiologic studies have linked pterygium formation to various chronic inflammatory conditions, such as ultraviolet radiation, sawdust exposure, and dry eye disease. The purpose of this study is to...

A Randomized, Controlled Treatment Trial of Eyelid-Warming Therapies in Meibomian Gland Dysfunction

Aim The main treatment for meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), a major cause of dry eye, is eyelid warming. Lack of compliance is the main reason for treatment failure. This has led to the development of eyelid-warming devices that are safe, effective and convenient. To obtain robust evidence demonstrating their efficacy, the authors conducted a 3-arm randomized clinical study...

Cost of Dry Eye Treatment in an Asian Clinic Setting

Objectives To estimate the cost and patterns of expenditure of dry eye treatment. Methodology We retrieved data on the type and cost of dry eye treatment in Singapore National Eye Centre from pharmacy and clinic inventory databases over a 2 year period (2008–2009) retrospectively. According to the type of treatment, data were sorted into 7 groups; meibomien gland disease (MGD...

Meibum Lipid Composition in Asians with Dry Eye Disease

group In total, 42 patients and 13 control subjects were recruited for this study (Figure 1). The 42 patients were diagnosed with dry eye syndrome at Singapore National Eye Center by Dr Louis Tong. The

Transglutaminases (TGs) in Ocular and Periocular Tissues: Effect of Muscarinic Agents on TGs in Scleral Fibroblasts

Objective To investigate the expression of transglutaminases (TGs) in the ocular surface, the eyelid margin and associated glands and to determine effect of muscarinic agents on TGs in scleral fibroblasts (SF). Materials and Methods Primary SFs cultured from mouse and human sclera were treated with atropine and carbachol for 5 days. Lysed cell RNA was used for real-time PCR...

Distinct gene subsets in pterygia formation and recurrence: dissecting complex biological phenomenon using genome wide expression data

Background Pterygium is a common ocular surface disease characterized by fibrovascular invasion of the cornea and is sight-threatening due to astigmatism, tear film disturbance, or occlusion of the visual axis. However, the mechanisms for formation and post-surgical recurrence of pterygium are not understood, and a valid animal model does not exist. Here, we investigated the...

Aberrant DNA Methylation of Matrix Remodeling and Cell Adhesion Related Genes in Pterygium

Background Pterygium is a common ocular surface disease characterized by abnormal epithelial and fibrovascular proliferation, invasion, and matrix remodeling. This lesion, which migrates from the periphery to the center of the cornea, impairs vision and causes considerable irritation. The mechanism of pterygium formation remains ambiguous, and current treatment is solely surgical...