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Starvation signals in yeast are integrated to coordinate metabolic reprogramming and stress response to ensure longevity

Studies on replicative and chronological aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have greatly advanced our understanding of how longevity is regulated in all eukaryotes. Chronological lifespan (CLS) of yeast is defined as the age-dependent viability of non-dividing cell populations. A number of nutrient sensing and signal transduction pathways (mainly TOR and PKA) have been shown to ...

Weak localization of bismuth cluster-decorated graphene and its spin–orbit interaction

Weak-localization (WL) measurements were performed in a Bi cluster-decorated graphene sheet. The charge concentration was kept constant, and the amplitude of the conductance correction was suppressed after the Bi-cluster deposition. Detailed WL data were obtained while the gate and temperature were changed. Using E. McCann’s formula, the spin-relaxation time was extracted, which ...

Perfluorocarbon reduces cell damage from blast injury by inhibiting signal paths of NF-κB, MAPK and Bcl-2/Bax signaling pathway in A549 cells

Background and objective Blast lung injury is a common type of blast injury and has very high mortality. Therefore, research to identify medical therapies for blast injury is important. Perfluorocarbon (PFC) is used to improve gas exchange in diseased lungs and has anti-inflammatory functions in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to determine whether PFC reduces damage to ...

Hierarchical classification strategy for Phenotype extraction from epidermal growth factor receptor endocytosis screening

Background Endocytosis is regarded as a mechanism of attenuating the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and of receptor degradation. There is increasing evidence becoming available showing that breast cancer progression is associated with a defect in EGFR endocytosis. In order to find related Ribonucleic acid (RNA) regulators in this process, high-throughput imaging ...

Inhibiting inducible miR-223 further reduces viable cells in human cancer cell lines MCF-7 and PC3 treated by celastrol

Background Celastrol is a novel anti-tumor agent. Ways to further enhance this effect of celastrol has attracted much research attention. Methods and Results Here, we report that celastrol treatment can elevate miR-223 in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and prostate cancer PC3. Down-regulating miR-223 could increase the number of viable cells, yet it further reduced viable ...

The Yeast GSK-3 Homologue Mck1 Is a Key Controller of Quiescence Entry and Chronological Lifespan

Upon starvation for glucose or any other core nutrient, yeast cells exit from the mitotic cell cycle and acquire a set of G0-specific characteristics to ensure long-term survival. It is not well understood whether or how cell cycle progression is coordinated with the acquisition of different G0-related features during the transition to stationary phase (SP). Here, we identify the ...

Peptide deformylase inhibitor actinonin reduces celastrol’s HSP70 induction while synergizing proliferation inhibition in tumor cells

Background Celastrol is a promising anti-tumor agent, yet it also elevates heat shock proteins (HSPs), especially HSP70, this effect believed to reduce its anti-tumor effects. Concurrent use of siRNA to increase celastrol’s anti-tumor effects through HSP70 interference has been reported, but because siRNA technology is difficult to clinically apply, an alternative way to curb ...

MiR-125b Reduces Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Replication by Negatively Regulating the NF-κB Pathway

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an Arterivirus that has been devastating the swine industry worldwide since the late 1980s. To investigate the impact of cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) on the replication of PRRSV, we screened 10 highly conserved miRNAs implicated in innate immunity or antiviral function and identified miR-125b as an inhibitor of PRRSV ...

OCT4 increases BIRC5 and CCND1 expression and promotes cancer progression in hepatocellular carcinoma

Background OCT4 and BIRC5 are preferentially expressed in human cancer cells and mediate cancer cell survival and tumor maintenance. However, the molecular mechanism that regulates OCT4 and BIRC5 expression is not well characterized. Methods By manipulating OCT4 and BIRC5 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, the regulatory mechanism of OCT4 on BIRC5 and CCND1 ...

hSulf-1 Gene Exhibits Anticancer Efficacy through Negatively Regulating VEGFR-2 Signaling in Human Cancers

Background Human sulfatase 1 (hSulf-1) is a heparin-degrading endosulfatase that desulfates cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) in extracellular matrix and negatively modulates heparin-binding growth factor and cytokine signaling in cell proliferation. But hSulf-1 function is more complicated, and its molecular mechanism has not been well known. Principal Findings To ...

Sphere-forming cell subpopulations with cancer stem cell properties in human hepatoma cell lines

Background Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are regarded as the cause of tumor formation and recurrence. The isolation and identification of CSCs could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies specifically targeting CSCs. Methods Human hepatoma cell lines were plated in stem cell conditioned culture system allowed for sphere forming. To evaluate the stemness characteristics of spheres, ...