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Identification and characterization of cancer stem cells in canine mammary tumors

Cancer stem cells (CSC) represent a small subpopulation of cells in malignant tumors that possess the unique ability to self-renew, differentiate and resist chemo- and radiotherapy. These cells have been postulated to be the basis for some of the difficulties in treating cancer, and therefore, numerous approaches have been developed to specifically target and eliminate CSC in...

Electrophysiological Correlates of Emotional See-Saw Effect on a Go/No-Go Task

Social influence studies show that manipulation of rapid affective changes, the so-called emotional see-saw, works effectively as it triggers a mindlessness state through cognitive deficits. This study aimed at investigating the neuronal mechanisms underlying mindlessness behavior evoked by the fear-then-relief technique. We hypothesized that rapid affective changes due to the...

Comparative Gene Expression Profiling of Primary and Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Stem Cell-Like Cancer Cells

Background Recent advancement in cancer research has shown that tumors are highly heterogeneous, and multiple phenotypically different cell populations are found in a single tumor. Cancer development and tumor growth are driven by specific types of cells—stem cell-like cancer cells (SCLCCs)—which are also responsible for metastatic spread and drug resistance. This research was...

Retrospective study and immunohistochemical analysis of canine mammary sarcomas

Background Canine mammary sarcomas (CMSs) are rarely diagnosed in female dogs, which explains the scarcity of immunohistochemical findings concerning those tumors. This paper presents the results of a retrospective study into CMSs and discusses the clinical features of the analyzed tumors, the expression of intermediate filaments CK, Vim, Des and α-SMA, and the expression of p63...

MDSCs Mediate Angiogenesis and Predispose Canine Mammary Tumor Cells for Metastasis via IL-28/IL-28RA (IFN-λ) Signaling

Background Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) function in immunosuppression and tumor development by induction of angiogenesis in a STAT3-dependent manner. Knowledge of MDSC biology is mainly limited to mice studies, and more clinical investigations using spontaneous tumor models are required. Here we performed in vitro experiments and clinical data analysis obtained from...

Correction: Enhancing Anti-Tumor Efficacy of Doxorubicin by Non-Covalent Conjugation to Gold Nanoparticles - In Vitro Studies on Feline Fibrosarcoma Cell Lines

Magdalena Król Karol Pawłowski Józef Mieczkowski Roman Lechowski Katarzyna Zabielska The images for Figs 5 and 6 are incorrectly switched. The image that appears as Fig 5 should be Fig 6, and the image that

Enhancing Anti-Tumor Efficacy of Doxorubicin by Non-Covalent Conjugation to Gold Nanoparticles – In Vitro Studies on Feline Fibrosarcoma Cell Lines

Background Feline injection-site sarcomas are malignant skin tumors of mesenchymal origin, the treatment of which is a challenge for veterinary practitioners. Methods of treatment include radical surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The most commonly used cytostatic drugs are cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and vincristine. However, the use of cytostatics as adjunctive treatment...

Five markers useful for the distinction of canine mammary malignancy

Magdalena Król 0 0 Department of Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences - WULS , Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776, Warsaw , Poland 1 Department of Large Animal

Expression and role of PGP, BCRP, MRP1 and MRP3 in multidrug resistance of canine mammary cancer cells

Background In both women and female dogs, the most prevalent type of malignant neoplasm is the spontaneous mammary tumor. In dogs, half of these are malignant. The treatment of choice for the canine patients is surgical mastectomy. Unfortunately, it often fails in high-risk, locally invasive mammary tumors as of during the time of the surgery the micro-metastases are present...

Gene expression profiles in canine mammary carcinomas of various grades of malignancy

Background The frequency of mammary malignancies in canine patients is even three times over than in human. In various types of cancer different intracellular signalling pathways are perturbed, thus the patients with pathologically the same type of cancer often have dissimilar genetic defects in their tumours and respond in a heterogeneous manner to anticancer treatment. That is...

Migrastatin Analogues Inhibit Canine Mammary Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion

BackgroundCancer spread to other organs is the main cause of death of oncological patients. Migration of cancer cells from a primary tumour is the crucial step in the complex process of metastasis, therefore blocking this process is currently the main treatment strategy. Metastasis inhibitors derived from natural products, such as, migrastatin, are very promising anticancer...

Thermally initiated solvent-free radical modification of beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood

A procedure for rapidly modifying beech wood using a thermally initiated solvent-free grafting system was examined. In the modification, butyl acrylate and butyl methacrylate were used as vinyl monomers. Free radicals were generated from 2,2′-azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) or benzoyl peroxide at 103 and 180 °C by contact heating of the modified material. Chemical changes in the...

A role of ghrelin in canine mammary carcinoma cells proliferation, apoptosis and migration

Background Ghrelin is a natural ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). They are often co-expressed in multiple human tumors and related cancer cell lines what can indicate that the ghrelin/GHS-R axis may have an important role in tumor growth and progression. However, a role of ghrelin in canine tumors remains unknown. Thus, the aim of our study was two-fold...

CSF-1R as an inhibitor of apoptosis and promoter of proliferation, migration and invasion of canine mammary cancer cells

Background Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have high impact on the cancer development because they can facilitate matrix invasion, angiogenesis, and tumor cell motility. It gives cancer cells the capacity to invade normal tissues and metastasize. The signaling of colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) which is an important regulator of proliferation and differentiation...

Macrophages Mediate a Switch between Canonical and Non-Canonical Wnt Pathways in Canine Mammary Tumors

Objective According to the current hypothesis, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are “corrupted” by cancer cells and subsequently facilitate, rather than inhibit, tumor metastasis. Because the molecular mechanisms of cancer cell–TAM interactions are complicated and controversial we aimed to better define this phenomenon. Methods and Results Using microRNA microarrays, Real-time...

Global gene expression profiles of canine macrophages and canine mammary cancer cells grown as a co-culture in vitro

Background Solid tumours comprise various cells, including cancer cells, resident stromal cells, migratory haemopoietic cells and other. These cells regulate tumour growth and metastasis. Macrophages constitute probably the most important element of all interactions within the tumour microenvironment. However, the molecular mechanism, that guides tumour environment, still remains...

Density of Gr1-positive myeloid precursor cells, p-STAT3 expression and gene expression pattern in canine mammary cancer metastasis

The very recent studies on human and mice models have indicated an important role of myeloid precursor cells (progenitors or not fully differentiated cells that express the Gr1 antigen also called Gr1-positive myeloid suppressor cells) in the tumor progression and metastasis. They are thought to suppress the immune system and promote angiogenesis via Signal transducer and...

The gene expression profiles of canine mammary cancer cells grown with carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) as a co-culture in vitro

Background It is supposed that fibroblasts present in tumour microenvironment increase cancer invasiveness and its ability to metastasize but the mechanisms have not been clearly defined yet. Thus, the current study was designed to assess changes in gene expression in five various cancer cell lines grown as a co-culture with the carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in vitro...