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17 papers found.
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Use of Patients With Diarrhea Who Test Negative for Rotavirus as Controls to Estimate Rotavirus Vaccine Effectiveness Through Case-Control Studies

Background. Case-control studies are often performed to estimate postlicensure vaccine effectiveness (VE), but the enrollment of controls can be challenging, time-consuming, and costly. We evaluated whether children enrolled in the same hospital-based diarrheal surveillance used to identify rotavirus cases but who test negative for rotavirus (test-negative controls) can be...

The Rotavirus Experience in Mexico: Discovery to Control

The recent introduction of a rotavirus vaccine program in Mexico to control rotavirus disease, a common killer of children worldwide, has dramatically reduced the number of Mexican children dying and being hospitalized because of diarrhea. The successful introduction of a rotavirus vaccine program was preceded by several decades of focused research efforts to document the burden...

Childhood Intussusception: A Literature Review

M. Patel 0 D. William Cameron, University of Ottawa, Canada 0 1 National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States

Removing the Age Restrictions for Rotavirus Vaccination: A Benefit-Risk Modeling Analysis

A modeling analysis conducted by Manish Patel and colleagues predicts the possible number of rotavirus deaths prevented, and number of intussusception deaths caused, by use of an unrestricted rotavirus schedule in low- and middle-income countries.

Assessing the Effectiveness and Public Health Impact of Rotavirus Vaccines after Introduction in Immunization Programs

Two new vaccines against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis that have high efficacy in middle- and high-income countries have recently been licensed in many countries worldwide. Clinical trials in low-income countries in Africa and Asia are ongoing. Experience gained through studies of natural rotavirus infection and the clinical trials for the current and previous rotavirus...

Use of Internet Search Data to Monitor Impact of Rotavirus Vaccination in the United States

Google-based Internet query share (IQS) for rotavirus search terms correlated well with US rotavirus laboratory detections from 2004 to 2010 (r = 0.88; P < .001), capturing the reduction observed during postvaccine years (2008–2010). IQS analysis could become an inexpensive and reliable supplement for monitoring the impact of rotavirus vaccination in the United States.

All-Cause Gastroenteritis and Rotavirus-Coded Hospitalizations Among US Children, 2000–2009

Background. Rotavirus vaccine was recommended for US infants in 2006. We estimated baseline prevaccine burden and monitored postvaccine trends in gastroenteritis-coded and rotavirus-coded hospitalizations among US children. Methods. We analyzed data from the State Inpatient Databases (SID) for 29–44 US states over a 10-year period (2000–2009) to calculate gastroenteritis and...

Trends in Intussusception Hospitalizations Among US Infants Before and After Implementation of the Rotavirus Vaccination Program, 2000–2009

Background. Although US data have not documented an intussusception risk with current rotavirus vaccines, international data indicate a possible low risk, primarily after the first dose. Methods. Among infants in 26 US states comprising 75% of the birth cohort, we examined age-specific trends in population-level intussusception hospitalization rates before (2000–2005) and after...

Influence of birth rates and transmission rates on the global seasonality of rotavirus incidence

Rotavirus is a major cause of mortality in developing countries, and yet the dynamics of rotavirus in such settings are poorly understood. Rotavirus is typically less seasonal in the tropics, although recent observational studies have challenged the universality of this pattern. While numerous studies have examined the association between environmental factors and rotavirus...

Medical toxicology and public health: Update on research and activities at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

Manish M. Patel Lieutenant Commander Joshua G. Schier Lieutenant Commander - a U.S. Public Health Service: Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental

Norovirus Disease Surveillance Using Google Internet Query Share Data

Google Internet query share (IQS) data for gastroenteritis-related search terms correlated strongly with contemporaneous national (R2 = 0.70) and regional (R2 = 0.74) norovirussurveillance data in the United States. IQS data may facilitate rapid identification of norovirus season onset, elevated peak activity, and potential emergence of novel strains.

Monovalent Rotavirus Vaccine Provides Protection Against an Emerging Fully Heterotypic G9P[4] Rotavirus Strain in Mexico

After the introduction of monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) in Mexico in 2006–2007, diarrhea mortality and morbidity declined substantially among Mexican children under 5 years of age. In January 2010, surveillance identified the emergence of a novel G9P[4] rotavirus strain nationwide. We conducted a case-control study to assess the field effectiveness of RV1 against severe...

Cardiotoxicity after massive amantadine overdose

Introduction Amantadine hydrochloride is an antiviral medication used as therapy for parkinsonism and as a cognitive enhancer. We report 2 cases of massive, acute ingestion of amantadine hydrochloride confirmed with serial serum levels. Case Reports A 47-year-old woman presented to the emergency department (ED) 30 minutes after ingesting 10 g of amantadine (150 mg/kg) by her...

Potential Intussusception Risk Versus Health Benefits From Rotavirus Vaccination in Latin America

Background. With the recent postlicensure identification of an increased risk of intussusception with rotavirus vaccine, the 14 Latin American countries currently using rotavirus vaccine must now weigh the health benefits versus risks to assess whether to continue vaccination. To inform policy considerations, we estimated excess intussusception cases and mortality potentially...

A qualitative assessment of factors influencing acceptance of a new rotavirus vaccine among health care providers and consumers

Background In 2006, a new rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq) was licensed in the US and recommended for routine immunization of all US infants. Because a previously licensed vaccine (Rotashield) was withdrawn from the US for safety concerns, identifying barriers to uptake of RotaTeq will help develop strategies to broaden vaccine coverage. Methods We explored beliefs and attitudes of...

Direct and Indirect Effects of Rotavirus Vaccination: Comparing Predictions from Transmission Dynamic Models

Early observations from countries that have introduced rotavirus vaccination suggest that there may be indirect protection for unvaccinated individuals, but it is unclear whether these benefits will extend to the long term. Transmission dynamic models have attempted to quantify the indirect protection that might be expected from rotavirus vaccination in developed countries, but...

Effectiveness of Monovalent Rotavirus Vaccine (Rotarix) against Severe Diarrhea Caused by Serotypically Unrelated G2P[4] Strains in Brazil

Background. In a Latin American trial, a monovalent G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine showed high efficacy against severe rotavirus diarrhea. Protection was lower against serotypically unrelated G2P[4] strains, which circulated infrequently. This case-control study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of this monovalent G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine against G2P[4] strains in Brazil...