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Search: authors:"Marcel Salathé"

19 papers found.
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Digital Pharmacovigilance and Disease Surveillance: Combining Traditional and Big-Data Systems for Better Public Health

The digital revolution has contributed to very large data sets (ie, big data) relevant for public health. The two major data sources are electronic health records from traditional health systems and patient-generated data. As the two data sources have complementary strengths—high veracity in the data from traditional sources and high velocity and variety in patient-generated ...

A low-cost method to assess the epidemiological importance of individuals in controlling infectious disease outbreaks

Background Infectious disease outbreaks in communities can be controlled by early detection and effective prevention measures. Assessing the relative importance of each individual community member with respect to these two processes requires detailed knowledge about the underlying social contact network on which the disease can spread. However, mapping social contact networks is ...

Governing the Global Commons with Local Institutions

Most problems faced by modern human society have two characteristics in common - they are tragedy-of-the-commons type of problems, and they are global problems. Tragedy-of-the-commons type of problems are those where a commonly shared resource is overexploited by free riders at the expense of everyone sharing the resource. The exploitation of global resources such as clean air and ...

Assessing Vaccination Sentiments with Online Social Media: Implications for Infectious Disease Dynamics and Control

There is great interest in the dynamics of health behaviors in social networks and how they affect collective public health outcomes, but measuring population health behaviors over time and space requires substantial resources. Here, we use publicly available data from 101,853 users of online social media collected over a time period of almost six months to measure the ...

The dynamics of health behavior sentiments on a large online social network

Modifiable health behaviors, a leading cause of illness and death in many countries, are often driven by individual beliefs and sentiments about health and disease. Individual behaviors affecting health outcomes are increasingly modulated by social networks, for example through the associations of like-minded individuals - homophily - or through peer influence effects. Using a ...

Non-genetic inheritance and the patterns of antagonistic coevolution

Background Antagonistic species interactions can lead to coevolutionary genotype or phenotype frequency oscillations, with important implications for ecological and evolutionary processes. However, direct empirical evidence of such oscillations is rare. The rarity of observations is generally attributed to inherent difficulties of ecological and evolutionary long-term studies, to ...

How should social mixing be measured: comparing web-based survey and sensor-based methods

Background Contact surveys and diaries have conventionally been used to measure contact networks in different settings for elucidating infectious disease transmission dynamics of respiratory infections. More recently, technological advances have permitted the use of wireless sensor devices, which can be worn by individuals interacting in a particular social context to record high ...

Positive Network Assortativity of Influenza Vaccination at a High School: Implications for Outbreak Risk and Herd Immunity

Schools are known to play a significant role in the spread of influenza. High vaccination coverage can reduce infectious disease spread within schools and the wider community through vaccine-induced immunity in vaccinated individuals and through the indirect effects afforded by herd immunity. In general, herd immunity is greatest when vaccination coverage is highest, but clusters ...

Dynamics and Control of Diseases in Networks with Community Structure

The dynamics of infectious diseases spread via direct person-to-person transmission (such as influenza, smallpox, HIV/AIDS, etc.) depends on the underlying host contact network. Human contact networks exhibit strong community structure. Understanding how such community structure affects epidemics may provide insights for preventing the spread of disease between communities by ...

Sexual selection and its effect on the fixation of an asexual clone

Sexual selection is a powerful and ubiquitous force in sexual populations. It has recently been argued that sexual selection can eliminate the twofold cost of sex even with low genomic mutation rates. By means of differential male mating success, deleterious mutations in males become more deleterious than in females, and it has been shown that sexual selection can drastically ...

The effect of opinion clustering on disease outbreaks

Many high-income countries currently experience large outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases such as measles despite the availability of highly effective vaccines. This phenomenon lacks an explanation in countries where vaccination rates are rising on an already high level. Here, we build on the growing evidence that belief systems, rather than access to vaccines, are the ...

Early Assessment of Anxiety and Behavioral Response to Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A(H1N1)

Background Since late April, 2009, a novel influenza virus A (H1N1), generally referred to as the “swine flu,” has spread around the globe and infected hundreds of thousands of people. During the first few days after the initial outbreak in Mexico, extensive media coverage together with a high degree of uncertainty about the transmissibility and mortality rate associated with the ...

Modelling the influence of human behaviour on the spread of infectious diseases: a review

Human behaviour plays an important role in the spread of infectious diseases, and understanding the influence of behaviour on the spread of diseases can be key to improving control efforts. While behavioural responses to the spread of a disease have often been reported anecdotally, there has been relatively little systematic investigation into how behavioural changes can affect ...

The Red Queen and the persistence of linkage-disequilibrium oscillations in finite and infinite populations

Background The Red Queen Hypothesis (RQH) suggests that the coevolutionary dynamics of host-parasite systems can generate selection for increased host recombination. Since host-parasite interactions often have a strong genetic basis, recombination between different hosts can increase the fraction of novel and potentially resistant offspring genotypes. A prerequisite for this ...

Digital Epidemiology

Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital ...

High Epitope Expression Levels Increase Competition between T Cells

Both theoretical predictions and experimental findings suggest that T cell populations can compete with each other. There is some debate on whether T cells compete for aspecific stimuli, such as access to the surface on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) or for specific stimuli, such as their cognate epitope ligand. We have developed an individual-based computer simulation model to ...

The Effect of Multifunctionality on the Rate of Evolution in Yeast

Multifunctional genes are expected to evolve at lower rates because mutations in such genes that improve one function might often have deleterious effects on other functions. Here we tested for an association between multifunctionality and evolutionary rates in genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and we find a highly significant negative correlation between the number of biological ...

The evolution of network topology by selective removal

The topology of large social, technical and biological networks such as the World Wide Web or protein interaction networks has caught considerable attention in the past few years (reviewed in Newman 2003), and analysis of the structure of such networks revealed that many of them can be classified as broad-tailed, scale-free-like networks, since their vertex connectivities follow ...