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Search: authors:"Margaret M. Cortese"

16 papers found.
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Use of Patients With Diarrhea Who Test Negative for Rotavirus as Controls to Estimate Rotavirus Vaccine Effectiveness Through Case-Control Studies

Background. Case-control studies are often performed to estimate postlicensure vaccine effectiveness (VE), but the enrollment of controls can be challenging, time-consuming, and costly. We evaluated whether children enrolled in the same hospital-based diarrheal surveillance used to identify rotavirus cases but who test negative for rotavirus (test-negative controls) can be...

A Randomized, Controlled Trial of the Impact of Alternative Dosing Schedules on the Immune Response to Human Rotavirus Vaccine in Rural Ghanaian Infants

Background. The recommended schedule for receipt of 2-dose human rotavirus vaccine (HRV) coincides with receipt of the first and second doses of diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus vaccine (ie, 6 and 10 weeks of age, respectively). Alternative schedules and additional doses of HRV have been proposed and may improve vaccine performance in low-income countries. Methods. In this...

Impact of Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction and Vaccine Effectiveness in the Republic of Moldova

Background. The Republic of Moldova was the first low- to middle-income country in the World Health Organization European Region to introduce rotavirus vaccine (July 2012). We aimed to assess the impact of the rotavirus vaccine program and estimate vaccine effectiveness (VE). Methods. Surveillance for rotavirus gastroenteritis was conducted in 2 hospitals in the capital city of...

Impact and Effectiveness of Monovalent Rotavirus Vaccine in Armenian Children

Background. The Republic of Armenia was 1 of the 2 earliest countries in the Newly Independent States to introduce rotavirus vaccine into its national immunization program to reduce the burden of rotavirus disease (documented to cause 38% of acute gastroenteritis hospitalizations [AGE] among children aged <5 years). In November 2012, RV1 (Rotarix) was introduced for Armenian...

Noninterference of Rotavirus Vaccine With Measles-Rubella Vaccine at 9 Months of Age and Improvements in Antirotavirus Immunity: A Randomized Trial

Background. The burden of rotavirus morbidity and mortality is high in children aged <5 years in developing countries, and evaluations indicate waning protection from rotavirus immunization in the second year. An additional dose of rotavirus vaccine may enhance the immune response and lengthen the period of protection against disease, but coadministration of this dose should not...

Outbreak of Gastroenteritis in Adults Due to Rotavirus Genotype G12P[8]

Background. Rotavirus infection in adults is poorly understood and few rotavirus outbreaks among US adults have been reported in the literature. We describe an outbreak due to genotype G12P[8] rotavirus among medical students, faculty, and guests who attended a formal dinner event in April 2013. Methods. A web-based questionnaire was distributed to event attendees to collect...

Impact of Different Dosing Schedules on the Immunogenicity of the Human Rotavirus Vaccine in Infants in Pakistan: A Randomized Trial

Background. Current oral rotavirus vaccines perform suboptimally in resource-poor settings. We investigated the effect of an additional dose and later schedule on the immunogenicity of monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) in a developing country. Methods. Infants received RV1 at 6 and 10, 10 and 14, or 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. The primary objective was to compare antirotavirus...

Impact of Withholding Breastfeeding at the Time of Vaccination on the Immunogenicity of Oral Rotavirus Vaccine—A Randomized Trial

Background Breast milk contains anti-rotavirus IgA antibodies and other innate immune factors that inhibit rotavirus replication in vitro. These factors could diminish the immunogenicity of oral rotavirus vaccines, particularly if breastfeeding occurs close to the time of vaccine administration. Methods Between April 2011 and November 2012, we conducted an open label, randomized...

Trends in Intussusception Hospitalizations Among US Infants Before and After Implementation of the Rotavirus Vaccination Program, 2000–2009

Background. Although US data have not documented an intussusception risk with current rotavirus vaccines, international data indicate a possible low risk, primarily after the first dose. Methods. Among infants in 26 US states comprising 75% of the birth cohort, we examined age-specific trends in population-level intussusception hospitalization rates before (2000–2005) and after...

Incidence of Bordetella pertussis Infection in Adolescents and Adults

M. Cortese, and Barbara A. Slade National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , Atlanta , Georgia 2 Department of Internal Medicine, Division

Mumps Antibody Levels Among Students Before a Mumps Outbreak: In Search of a Correlate of Immunity

Background. In 2006, a mumps outbreak occurred on a university campus despite ≥ 95% coverage of students with 2 doses of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Using plasma samples from a blood drive held on campus before identification of mumps cases, we compared vaccine-induced preoutbreak mumps antibody levels between individuals who developed mumps (case patients) and those who...

Underestimates of Intussusception Rates among US Infants Based on Inpatient Discharge Data: Implications for Monitoring the Safety of Rotavirus Vaccines

BackgroundBecause a previous rotavirus vaccine was associated with intussusception, new rotavirus vaccines are monitored postlicensure for any such association. Accurate background intussusception rates are needed to determine whether the number of cases observed after vaccination exceeds that expected by chance. Previously, intussusception rates were obtained from inpatient...

Mumps Vaccine Performance among University Students during a Mumps Outbreak

Background. The largest reported mumps outbreak at a US college in 19 years occurred in 2006 at a Kansas university with a 2-dose measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination policy. We assessed vaccine performance and mumps risk factors, including the possibility of waning vaccine protection. Methods. Case students were compared with a cohort of the university's ∼19,000...

Rotavirus Burden among Children in the Newly Independent States of the Former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: Literature Review and First-Year Results from the Rotavirus Surveillance Network

BackgroundData on rotavirus burden among children in the 15 newly independent states of the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, particularly contemporary data from poorer countries, are not widely available. These data are desired by policy makers to assess the value of rotavirus vaccination, especially since the GAVI Alliance approved financial support for the region’s...

G and P Types of Circulating Rotavirus Strains in the United States during 1996–2005: Nine Years of Prevaccine Data

BackgroundRotavirus vaccine was recommended for routine use among US infants in 2006. To provide prevaccine data, we conducted strain surveillance for 9 consecutive seasons during 1996–2005 MethodsUsing reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction genotyping and nucleotide sequencing, we determined P/G genotypes of >3100 rotavirus strains collected in up to 12 cities each year...