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26 papers found.
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Correlative Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy and Electron Microscopy

Correlative fluorescence light microscopy and electron microscopy allows the imaging of spatial distributions of specific biomolecules in the context of cellular ultrastructure. Recent development of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy allows the location of molecules to be determined with nanometer-scale spatial resolution. However, correlative super-resolution fluorescence ...

Examination of the Effects of Heterogeneous Organization of RyR Clusters, Myofibrils and Mitochondria on Ca2+ Release Patterns in Cardiomyocytes

Spatio-temporal dynamics of intracellular calcium, [Ca2+]i, regulate the contractile function of cardiac muscle cells. Measuring [Ca2+]i flux is central to the study of mechanisms that underlie both normal cardiac function and calcium-dependent etiologies in heart disease. However, current imaging techniques are limited in the spatial resolution to which changes in [Ca2+]i can be ...

DP2: Distributed 3D image segmentation using micro-labor workforce

Summary: This application note describes a new scalable semi-automatic approach, the Dual Point Decision Process, for segmentation of 3D structures contained in 3D microscopy. The segmentation problem is distributed to many individual workers such that each receives only simple questions regarding whether two points in an image are placed on the same object. A large pool of ...

Coenzyme Q10 ameliorates oxidative stress and prevents mitochondrial alteration in ischemic retinal injury

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) acts by scavenging reactive oxygen species for protecting neuronal cells against oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases. We tested whether a diet supplemented with CoQ10 ameliorates oxidative stress and mitochondrial alteration, as well as promotes retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival in ischemic retina induced by intraocular pressure elevation. A CoQ10 ...

Specific Disruption of Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Synapses in a Mouse Model of Familial Alzheimer's Disease

The earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are characterized by deficits in memory and cognition indicating hippocampal pathology. While it is now recognized that synapse dysfunction precedes the hallmark pathological findings of AD, it is unclear if specific hippocampal synapses are particularly vulnerable. Since the mossy fiber (MF) synapse between dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 ...

Method: automatic segmentation of mitochondria utilizing patch classification, contour pair classification, and automatically seeded level sets

Martone 0 Mark H Ellisman 0 0 Center for Research in Biological Systems, University of California , 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093 USA Background: While progress has been made to develop automatic

DIDS (4,4-Diisothiocyanatostilbenedisulphonic Acid) Induces Apoptotic Cell Death in a Hippocampal Neuronal Cell Line and Is Not Neuroprotective against Ischemic Stress

DIDS is a commonly used anion channel antagonist that is putatively cytoprotective against ischemic insult. However, recent reports indicate potentially deleterious secondary effects of DIDS. To assess the impact of DIDS on cellular viability comprehensively we examined neuronal morphology and function through 24 hours treatment with ACSF ± DIDS (40 or 400 µM). Control cells were ...

The cell: an image library-CCDB: a curated repository of microscopy data

The cell: an image library-CCDB (CIL-CCDB) (http://www.cellimagelibrary.org) is a searchable database and archive of cellular images. As a repository for microscopy data, it accepts all forms of cell imaging from light and electron microscopy, including multi-dimensional images, Z- and time stacks in a broad variety of raw-data formats, as well as movies and animations. The ...

Molecular Composition and Ultrastructure of the Caveolar Coat Complex

The single protein caveolar coat complex comprises only cavins and caveolins, coats the caveolar bulb, and is probably responsible for creating caveolae.

Autophagy and Apoptosis Are Differentially Induced in Neurons and Astrocytes Treated with an In Vitro Mimic of the Ischemic Penumbra

The development of clinical stroke therapies remains elusive. The neuroprotective efficacies of thousands of molecules and compounds have not yet been determined; however, screening large volumes of potential targets in vivo is severely rate limiting. High throughput screens (HTS) may be used to discover promising candidates, but this approach has been hindered by the lack of a ...

Inherited genetic variants in autism-related CNTNAP2 show perturbed trafficking and ATF6 activation

Although genetic variations in several genes encoding for synaptic adhesion proteins have been found to be associated with autism spectrum disorders, one of the most consistently replicated genes has been CNTNAP2, encoding for contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2), a multidomain transmembrane protein of the neurexin superfamily. Using immunofluorescence confocal microscopy ...

Quantitative Evaluation of the Mitochondrial Proteomes of Drosophila melanogaster Adapted to Extreme Oxygen Conditions

Mitochondria are the primary organelles that consume oxygen and provide energy for cellular activities. To investigate the mitochondrial mechanisms underlying adaptation to extreme oxygen conditions, we generated Drosophila strains that could survive in low- or high-oxygen environments (LOF or HOF, respectively), examined their mitochondria at the ultrastructural level via ...

Brimonidine Blocks Glutamate Excitotoxicity-Induced Oxidative Stress and Preserves Mitochondrial Transcription Factor A in Ischemic Retinal Injury

Glutamate excitotoxicity-induced oxidative stress have been linked to mitochondrial dysfunction in retinal ischemia and optic neuropathies including glaucoma. Brimonindine (BMD), an alpha 2-adrenergic receptor agonist, contributes to the neuroprotection of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) against glutamate excitotoxicity or oxidative stress. However, the molecular mechanisms of ...

Ultrastructural Modifications in the Mitochondria of Hypoxia-Adapted Drosophila melanogaster

Chronic hypoxia (CH) occurs under certain physiological or pathological conditions, including in people who reside at high altitude or suffer chronic cardiovascular or pulmonary diseases. As mitochondria are the predominant oxygen-consuming organelles to generate ATP through oxidative phosphorylation in cells, their responses, through structural or molecular modifications, to ...

DIDS Prevents Ischemic Membrane Degradation in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons by Inhibiting Matrix Metalloproteinase Release

During stroke, cells in the infarct core exhibit rapid failure of their permeability barriers, which releases ions and inflammatory molecules that are deleterious to nearby tissue (the penumbra). Plasma membrane degradation is key to penumbral spread and is mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which are released via vesicular exocytosis into the extracellular fluid in ...

Direct Restriction of Virus Release and Incorporation of the Interferon-Induced Protein BST-2 into HIV-1 Particles

Investigation of the Vpu protein of HIV-1 recently uncovered a novel aspect of the mammalian innate response to enveloped viruses: retention of progeny virions on the surface of infected cells by the interferon-induced, transmembrane and GPI-anchored protein BST-2 (CD317; tetherin). BST-2 inhibits diverse families of enveloped viruses, but how it restricts viral release is unclear. ...

A Genetically Encoded Tag for Correlated Light and Electron Microscopy of Intact Cells, Tissues, and Organisms

Electron microscopy (EM) achieves the highest spatial resolution in protein localization, but specific protein EM labeling has lacked generally applicable genetically encoded tags for in situ visualization in cells and tissues. Here we introduce “miniSOG” (for mini Singlet Oxygen Generator), a fluorescent flavoprotein engineered from Arabidopsis phototropin 2. MiniSOG contains 106 ...

Quantum Dots for Tracking Dendritic Cells and Priming an Immune Response In Vitro and In Vivo

Dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in initiating adaptive immune response by presenting antigen to T cells in lymphoid organs. Here, we investigate the potential of quantum dots (QDs) as fluorescent nanoparticles for in vitro and in vivo imaging of DCs, and as a particle-based antigen-delivery system to enhance DC-mediated immune responses. We used confocal, two-photon, and ...

Mitochondrial Rejuvenation After Induced Pluripotency

Background As stem cells of the early embryo mature and differentiate into all tissues, the mitochondrial complement undergoes dramatic functional improvement. Mitochondrial activity is low to minimize generation of DNA-damaging reactive oxygen species during pre-implantation development and increases following implantation and differentiation to meet higher metabolic demands. It ...

Alterations in mGluR5 Expression and Signaling in Lewy Body Disease and in Transgenic Models of Alpha-Synucleinopathy – Implications for Excitotoxicity

Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's Disease (PD) are neurodegenerative disorders of the aging population characterized by the abnormal accumulation of alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn). Previous studies have suggested that excitotoxicity may contribute to neurodegeneration in these disorders, however the underlying mechanisms and their relationship to alpha-syn remain ...