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Capturing Budget Impact Considerations Within Economic Evaluations: A Systematic Review of Economic Evaluations of Rotavirus Vaccine in Low- and Middle-Income Countries and a Proposed Assessment Framework

McKenzie Post Doctoral Fellowship Scheme. Mark Jit and Joanne Yoong were funded by the World Health Organization and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. Sarah Cox was funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation ... Natalie Carvalho, Mark Jit, Sarah Cox, Joanne Yoong and Raymond C.W. Hutubessy have no conflicts of interest directly relevant to the content of this article. Data availability statement This article is a

Methodological Challenges to Economic Evaluations of Vaccines: Is a Common Approach Still Possible?

Economic evaluation of vaccination is a key tool to inform effective spending on vaccines. However, many evaluations have been criticised for failing to capture features of vaccines which are relevant to decision makers. These include broader societal benefits (such as improved educational achievement, economic growth and political stability), reduced health disparities, medical ...

What makes an eLife paper in epidemiology and global health?

The best papers provide evidence that can be used to make changes that improve the health and lives of people around the world.

Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Background The epidemiology of oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) differs from anogenital HPV infection. The impact of HPV vaccination has, to date, largely focussed on anogenital outcomes. Vaccination of MSM in the UK has been recommended and, if implemented, baseline estimates of oral HPV prevalence will be useful. Methods We searched ...

Burden of Severe Pneumonia, Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Pneumonia Deaths in Indian States: Modelling Based Estimates

The burden of severe pneumonia in terms of morbidity and mortality is unknown in India especially at sub-national level. In this context, we aimed to estimate the number of severe pneumonia episodes, pneumococcal pneumonia episodes and pneumonia deaths in children younger than 5 years in 2010. We adapted and parameterized a mathematical model based on the epidemiological concept of ...

Systematic review of model-based cervical screening evaluations

Background Optimising population-based cervical screening policies is becoming more complex due to the expanding range of screening technologies available and the interplay with vaccine-induced changes in epidemiology. Mathematical models are increasingly being applied to assess the impact of cervical cancer screening strategies. Methods We systematically reviewed MEDLINE®, Embase, ...

The broader economic impact of vaccination: reviewing and appraising the strength of evidence

Background Microeconomic evaluations of public health programmes such as immunisation typically only consider direct health benefits and medical cost savings. Broader economic benefits around childhood development, household behaviour, and macro-economic indicators are increasingly important, but the evidence linking immunization to such benefits is unclear. Methods A conceptual ...

Enzymes provide demographers with food for thought

Life expectancy has increased by 20 years since the middle of the last century, but children under five have fared better than adult males.

Household Catastrophic Healthcare Expenditure and Impoverishment Due to Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Requiring Hospitalization in Malaysia

Background While healthcare costs for rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization may be burdensome on households in Malaysia, exploration on the distribution and catastrophic impact of these expenses on households are lacking. Objectives We assessed the economic burden, levels and distribution of catastrophic healthcare expenditure, the poverty impact on households and ...

Stakeholders’ perception on including broader economic impact of vaccines in economic evaluations in low and middle income countries: a mixed methods study

Background Current health economic evaluation guidelines mainly concentrate on immediate health gains and cost savings for the individual involved in the intervention. However, it has been argued that these guidelines are too narrow to capture the full impact of vaccination in low and middle income countries. The inclusion of broader economic impact of vaccines (BEIV) has therefore ...

Routine Pediatric Enterovirus 71 Vaccination in China: a Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

Background China accounted for 87% (9.8 million/11.3 million) of all hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) cases reported to WHO during 2010–2014. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is responsible for most of the severe HFMD cases. Three EV71 vaccines recently demonstrated good efficacy in children aged 6–71 mo. Here we assessed the cost-effectiveness of routine pediatric EV71 vaccination in ...

Methods for Health Economic Evaluation of Vaccines and Immunization Decision Frameworks: A Consensus Framework from a European Vaccine Economics Community

, Philippe Beutels, Joke Bilcke, Bernd Bru¨ggenju¨rgen, Andreas Gerber-Grote, Wolfgang Greiner, Germaine Hanquet, Raymond Hutubessy, Mark Jit, Mirjam Knol, Ru¨diger von Kries, Alexander Kuhlmann, Daniel Levy

Trends in parameterization, economics and host behaviour in influenza pandemic modelling: a review and reporting protocol

Background The volume of influenza pandemic modelling studies has increased dramatically in the last decade. Many models incorporate now sophisticated parameterization and validation techniques, economic analyses and the behaviour of individuals. Methods We reviewed trends in these aspects in models for influenza pandemic preparedness that aimed to generate policy insights for ...

Nosocomial Transmission of C. difficile in English Hospitals from Patients with Symptomatic Infection

Background Recent evidence suggests that less than one-quarter of patients with symptomatic nosocomial Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are linked to other in-patients. However, this evidence was limited to one geographic area. We aimed to investigate the level of symptomatic CDI transmission in hospitals located across England from 2008 to 2012. Methods A generalized ...

Economic analyses to support decisions about HPV vaccination in low- and middle-income countries: a consensus report and guide for analysts

Mark Jit Carol Levin Marc Brisson Ann Levin Stephen Resch Johannes Berkhof Jane Kim Raymond Hutubessy 0 0 Initiative for Vaccine Research, World Health Organization , 20 Avenue Appia, CH-1211 Geneva

Systematic review of studies evaluating the broader economic impact of vaccination in low and middle income countries

Background Most health economic evaluations of childhood vaccination only capture the health and short-term economic benefits. Measuring broader, long-term effects of vaccination on productivity and externalities could provide a more complete picture of the value of vaccines. Method MEDLINE, EconLit and NHS-EED databases were searched for articles published between January 1990 and ...

A Randomized, Observer-Blinded Immunogenicity Trial of Cervarix® and Gardasil® Human Papillomavirus Vaccines in 12-15 Year Old Girls

Background The current generation of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, Cervarix® and Gardasil®, exhibit a high degree of efficacy in clinical trials against the two high-risk (HR) genotypes represented in the vaccines (HPV16 and HPV18). High levels of neutralizing antibodies are elicited against the vaccine types, consistent with preclinical data showing that neutralizing ...

Mathematical Modelling Long-Term Effects of Replacing Prevnar7 with Prevnar13 on Invasive Pneumococcal Diseases in England and Wales

Introduction England and Wales recently replaced the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) with its 13-valent equivalent (PCV13), partly based on projections from mathematical models of the long-term impact of such a switch compared to ceasing pneumococcal conjugate vaccination altogether. Methods A compartmental deterministic model was used to estimate parameters ...

Comparative review of three cost-effectiveness models for rotavirus vaccines in national immunization programs; a generic approach applied to various regions in the world

Background This study aims to critically review available cost-effectiveness models for rotavirus vaccination, compare their designs using a standardized approach and compare similarities and differences in cost-effectiveness outcomes using a uniform set of input parameters. Methods We identified various models used to estimate the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination. From ...

Human papillomavirus vaccine introduction in low-income and middle-income countries: guidance on the use of cost-effectiveness models

Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that the cost effectiveness of introducing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is considered before such a strategy is implemented. However, developing countries often lack the technical capacity to perform and interpret results of economic appraisals of vaccines. To provide information about the feasibility of using such ...