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Pervasive microRNA Duplication in Chelicerates: Insights from the Embryonic microRNA Repertoire of the Spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum

MicroRNAs are small (∼22 nt) noncoding RNAs that repress translation and therefore regulate the production of proteins from specific target mRNAs. microRNAs have been found to function in diverse aspects of gene regulation within animal development and many other processes. Among invertebrates, both conserved and novel, lineage specific, microRNAs have been extensively studied...

Conserved Temporal Patterns of MicroRNA Expression in Drosophila Support a Developmental Hourglass Model

Maria Ninova 0 Matthew Ronshaugen 0 Sam Griffiths-Jones 0 0 Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester , Manchester, United Kingdom The spatiotemporal control of gene expression is crucial

Clusters of microRNAs emerge by new hairpins in existing transcripts

Genetic linkage may result in the expression of multiple products from a polycistronic transcript, under the control of a single promoter. In animals, protein-coding polycistronic transcripts are rare. However, microRNAs are frequently clustered in the genomes of animals, and these clusters are often transcribed as a single unit. The evolution of microRNA clusters has been the...

Target Repression Induced by Endogenous microRNAs: Large Differences, Small Effects

Ninova 0 Sam Griffiths-Jones 0 Matthew Ronshaugen 0 A. Aziz Aboobaker, University of Oxford, United Kingdom 0 Faculty of Life Sciences, The University of Manchester , Manchester , United Kingdom

Structure, evolution and function of the bi-directionally transcribed iab-4/iab-8 microRNA locus in arthropods

In Drosophila melanogaster, the iab-4/iab-8 locus encodes bi-directionally transcribed microRNAs that regulate the function of flanking Hox transcription factors. We show that bi-directional transcription, temporal and spatial expression patterns and Hox regulatory function of the iab-4/iab-8 locus are conserved between fly and the beetle Tribolium castaneum. Computational...

Sex-Biased Expression of MicroRNAs in Schistosoma mansoni

Schistosomiasis is an important neglected tropical disease caused by digenean helminth parasites of the genus Schistosoma. Schistosomes are unusual in that they are dioecious and the adult worms live in the blood system. MicroRNAs play crucial roles during gene regulation and are likely to be important in sex differentiation in dioecious species. Here we characterize 112...

Functional Shifts in Insect microRNA Evolution

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short endogenous RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level and have been shown to play critical roles during animal development. The identification and comparison of miRNAs in metazoan species are therefore paramount for our understanding of the evolution of body plans. We have characterized 203 miRNAs from the red flour...

Analysis of the Tribolium homeotic complex: insights into mechanisms constraining insect Hox clusters

The remarkable conservation of Hox clusters is an accepted but little understood principle of biology. Some organizational constraints have been identified for vertebrate Hox clusters, but most of these are thought to be recent innovations that may not apply to other organisms. Ironically, many model organisms have disrupted Hox clusters and may not be well-suited for studies of...