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The natural killer cell response to West Nile virus in young and old individuals with or without a prior history of infection

West Nile virus (WNV) typically leads to asymptomatic infection but can cause severe neuroinvasive disease or death, particularly in the elderly. Innate NK cells play a critical role in antiviral defenses, yet their role in human WNV infection is poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that NK cells mount a robust, polyfunctional response to WNV characterized by cytolytic activity...

West Nile Virus Retinopathy and Associations with Long Term Neurological and Neurocognitive Sequelae

West Nile virus (WNV) has emerged as an important vector-borne pathogen in North America, with more than 3 million estimated to have been infected. Retinopathy from WNV infection has been previously reported in acute cases, though those prior reports did not evaluate the risk of retinopathy based on clinical severity of neurologic disease. The purpose of this cross-sectional...

Potential novel risk factors for autochthonous and sylvatic transmission of human Chagas disease in the United States

Chagas disease is an emerging vector-borne disease in the United States that causes progressive dilated cardiomyopathy in a third of infected humans. While transmission studies have been performed in Latin America, little is known about the source of infection in locally acquired cases in the United States. This letter describes the underlying factors possibly leading to an...

Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Texas hunters: a potentially high-risk population for exposure to the parasite that causes Chagas disease

Background Chagas disease is a parasitic infection transmitted to humans and mammals by the Triatominae insect. If untreated, Chagas disease can lead to heart failure and death. Previous publications highlighted the potential public health risk of disease transmission among hunters in the United States. Findings We further investigated this population’s risk by administering a...

Identification and Characterization of the Trypanosoma cruzi B-cell Superantigen Tc24

Trypanosoma cruzi causes life-long disease after infection and leads to cardiac disease in 30% of infected individuals. After infection, the parasites are readily detectable in the blood during the first few days before disseminating to infect numerous cell types. Preliminary data suggested that the Tc24 protein that localizes to the T. cruzi membrane during all life stages...

The History of Dengue in the United States and its Recent Emergence

dengue in the USA. Compliance with Ethics Guidelines Conflict of Interest Coreen Beaumier, Melissa N. Garcia, and Kristy O. Murray declare that they have no conflict of interest. Human and Animal Rights

Long-Term Neurological Outcomes in West Nile Virus–Infected Patients: An Observational Study

Authors' addresses: Jill E. Weatherhead, Melissa N. Garcia, and Kristy O. Murray, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Med- icine , Houston, TX The Houston West Nile Cohort (HWNC) was founded in

Survival Analysis, Long-Term Outcomes, and Percentage of Recovery up to 8 Years Post-Infection among the Houston West Nile Virus Cohort

In 2012, we witnessed a resurgence of West Nile virus (WNV) in the United States, with the largest outbreak of human cases reported since 2003. WNV is now endemic and will continue to produce epidemics over time, therefore defining the long-term consequences of WNV infection is critical. Over a period of eight years, we prospectively followed a cohort of 157 WNV-infected subjects...