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Microdilution testing reveals considerable and diverse antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli, thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. isolated from wild birds present in urban areas

The antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of E. coli, Salmonella spp. and thermophilic Campylobacter spp. isolated from wild birds in the Austrian–Czech border region, predominantly within the vicinity of Vienna and Brno, was determined. Bacteria were isolated from cloacal swabs taken from 53 avian species belonging to 14 orders, the majority being feral pigeons and various songbirds. ...

The 60S ribosomal protein L13 is the most preferable reference gene to investigate gene expression in selected organs from turkeys and chickens, in context of different infection models

Evaluation of reference genes for expression studies in chickens and turkeys is very much limited and unavailable for various infectious models. In this study, eight candidate reference genes HMBS, HPRT1, TBP, VIM, TFRC, RPLP0, RPL13 and RPS7 were evaluated by five different algorithms (GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper©, delta CT, RefFinder) to assess their stability. In order to ...

High genetic diversity among extraintestinal Escherichia coli isolates in pullets and layers revealed by a longitudinal study

Background Various information about the genetic diversity of Escherichia coli isolates from chickens are available but a detailed epidemiological investigation based upon isolates obtained from interrelated pullet and layer flocks is still missing. Therefore, in the course of a longitudinal epidemiological study on pullets and layers, 144 E. coli isolates from chickens with or ...

The outcome of experimentally induced inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) by fowl aviadenoviruses (FAdVs) is crucially influenced by the genetic background of the host

In the present study, inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) was experimentally induced by oral inoculation of two groups of specific pathogen-free (SPF) broilers and two groups of SPF layers at day-old with either a fowl aviadenovirus (FAdV)-D or a FAdV-E strain. A substantial variation in the degree of susceptibility was observed with mortalities of 100 and 96% in the FAdV-E and D ...

C-Terminal Amino Acids 471-507 of Avian Hepatitis E Virus Capsid Protein Are Crucial for Binding to Avian and Human Cells

Michael Hess 0 1 0 Clinic for Poultry and Fish Medicine, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine , Vienna , Austria , 2 VetCore Facility for Research

Multi-Locus Typing of Histomonas meleagridis Isolates Demonstrates the Existence of Two Different Genotypes

Histomonas meleagridis is the aetiological agent of histomonosis or “blackhead disease”. Histomonosis is of special importance today, because there is no effective treatment to prevent its occurrence with considerable losses for the poultry industry. Despite its importance only a few molecular studies have yet been performed to investigate the degree of genetic diversity between ...

In Vitro Exposure to Escherichia coli Decreases Ion Conductance in the Jejunal Epithelium of Broiler Chickens

Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections are very widespread in poultry. However, little is known about the interaction between the intestinal epithelium and E. coli in chickens. Therefore, the effects of avian non-pathogenic and avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) on the intestinal function of broiler chickens were investigated by measuring the electrogenic ion transport across ...

Single and Combined Effects of Deoxynivalenol Mycotoxin and a Microbial Feed Additive on Lymphocyte DNA Damage and Oxidative Stress in Broiler Chickens

The immune and intestinal epithelial cells are particularly sensitive to the toxic effects of deoxynivalenol (DON). The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of DON and/or a microbial feed additive on the DNA damage of blood lymphocytes and on the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) as an indicator of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in ...

Quantity of virulent fowl adenovirus serotype 1 correlates with clinical signs, macroscopical and pathohistological lesions in gizzards following experimental induction of gizzard erosion in broilers

In the present study day-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) and commercial broilers with maternally derived fowl adenovirus serotype 1 (FAdV-1) antibodies were orally infected with a European “pathogenic” FAdV-1, isolated from broilers showing signs of gizzard erosion. During the experiment, broilers were observed and weighed daily up to 17 days post infection (dpi). Clinically, both ...

Characterization of Metastasis Formation and Virotherapy in the Human C33A Cervical Cancer Model

More than 90% of cancer mortalities are due to cancer that has metastasized. Therefore, it is crucial to intensify research on metastasis formation and therapy. Here, we describe for the first time the metastasizing ability of the human cervical cancer cell line C33A in athymic nude mice after subcutaneous implantation of tumor cells. In this model, we demonstrated a steady ...

Cysteine Peptidases, Secreted by Trichomonas gallinae, Are Involved in the Cytopathogenic Effects on a Permanent Chicken Liver Cell Culture

Trichomonas gallinae, the aetiological agent of avian trichomonosis, was shown to secrete soluble factors involved in cytopathogenic effect on a permanent chicken liver (LMH) cell culture. The present study focused on the characterization of these molecules. The addition of specific peptidase inhibitors to the cell-free filtrate partially inhibited the monolayer destruction, which ...

Virotherapy of Canine Tumors with Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus GLV-1h109 Expressing an Anti-VEGF Single-Chain Antibody

Virotherapy using oncolytic vaccinia virus (VACV) strains is one promising new strategy for cancer therapy. We have previously reported that oncolytic vaccinia virus strains expressing an anti-VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor) single-chain antibody (scAb) GLAF-1 exhibited significant therapeutic efficacy for treatment of human tumor xenografts. Here, we describe the use of ...

Bacterial glucuronidase as general marker for oncolytic virotherapy or other biological therapies

Background Oncolytic viral tumor therapy is an emerging field in the fight against cancer with rising numbers of clinical trials and the first clinically approved product (Adenovirus for the treatment of Head and Neck Cancer in China) in this field. Yet, until recently no general (bio)marker or reporter gene was described that could be used to evaluate successful tumor colonization ...

Preferential Colonization of Metastases by Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus Strain GLV-1h68 in a Human PC-3 Prostate Cancer Model in Nude Mice

Service Grant to the University of W urzburg. Dr. Ulrike Donat and Dr. Stephanie Weibel are recipients of a postdoctoral fellowship. Dr. Julia Sturm and Mr. Michael Hess are recipients of a graduate

Dermanyssus gallinae in layer farms in Kosovo: a high risk for salmonella prevalence

Background The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae (D.g.) is a serious ectoparasitic pest of poultry and potential pathogen vector. The prevalence of D. g. and the prevalence of Salmonella spp. within mites on infested laying poultry farms were investigated in Kosovo. Findings In total, 14 populated layer farms located in the Southern Kosovo were assessed for D. g. ...

Phylogeny of Parasitic Parabasalia and Free-Living Relatives Inferred from Conventional Markers vs. Rpb1, a Single-Copy Gene

Background Parabasalia are single-celled eukaryotes (protists) that are mainly comprised of endosymbionts of termites and wood roaches, intestinal commensals, human or veterinary parasites, and free-living species. Phylogenetic comparisons of parabasalids are typically based upon morphological characters and 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequence data (rDNA), while biochemical or ...

Imaging of Intratumoral Inflammation during Oncolytic Virotherapy of Tumors by 19F-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

Intratumoral Inflammation during Oncolytic 19 Virotherapy of Tumors by F-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Stephanie Weibel 0 Thomas Christian Basse-Luesebrink 0 Michael Hess 0 Elisabeth Hofmann 0 Carolin

Functional hyper-IL-6 from vaccinia virus-colonized tumors triggers platelet formation and helps to alleviate toxicity of mitomycin C enhanced virus therapy

Background Combination of oncolytic vaccinia virus therapy with conventional chemotherapy has shown promise for tumor therapy. However, side effects of chemotherapy including thrombocytopenia, still remain problematic. Methods Here, we describe a novel approach to optimize combination therapy of oncolytic virus and chemotherapy utilizing virus-encoding hyper-IL-6, GLV-1h90, to ...

An environment for relation mining over richly annotated corpora: the case of GENIA

Background The biomedical domain is witnessing a rapid growth of the amount of published scientific results, which makes it increasingly difficult to filter the core information. There is a real need for support tools that 'digest' the published results and extract the most important information. Results We describe and evaluate an environment supporting the extraction of ...

OntoGene in BioCreative II

Background: Research scientists and companies working in the domains of biomedicine and genomics are increasingly faced with the problem of efficiently locating, within the vast body of published scientific findings, the critical pieces of information that are needed to direct current and future research investment. Results: In this report we describe approaches taken within the ...