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Neighbourhood Ethnic Density Effects on Behavioural and Cognitive Problems Among Young Racial/Ethnic Minority Children in the US and England: A Cross-National Comparison

Studies on adult racial/ethnic minority populations show that the increased concentration of racial/ethnic minorities in a neighbourhood—a so-called ethnic density effect—is associated with improved health of racial/ethnic minority residents when adjusting for area deprivation. However, this literature has focused mainly on adult populations, individual racial/ethnic groups, and ...

Kramer and Casper Respond to “A-P-C … It's Easy as 1-2-3!”

Control and Pre vention, Atlanta, Georgia (Michael R. Kramer, Michele Casper); and Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (Michael R. Kramer

Development of a comprehensive measure of spatial access to HIV provider services, with application to Atlanta, Georgia

Background No existing measures of HIV care access consider both spatial proximity to services and provider-related characteristics in a single measure. We developed and applied a tool to: (1) quantify spatial access to HIV care services (supply) and (2) identify underserved areas with respect to HIV cases (demand), by travel mode, in Atlanta. Methods Building on a study of HIV ...

Decomposing Black-White Disparities in Heart Disease Mortality in the United States, 1973–2010: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis

Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia (Michael R. Kramer, Amy L. Valderrama, Michele L. Casper); and ... Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (Michael R. Kramer). M.R.K. was supported in part by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child

HIV testing among United States high school students at the state and national level, Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2005–2011

Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains an important public health issue and CDC recommends routine HIV screening for Americans aged 13–64. Adolescents and young adults are disproportionately affected compared to the overall population. We analyzed self-reported HIV testing and related risk behaviors at the state and national level among youths who had sexual ...

Influence of delivery characteristics and socioeconomic status on giving birth by caesarean section – a cross sectional study during 2000–2010 in Finland

Background Caesarean section (CS) rates especially without medical indication are rising worldwide. Most of indications for CS are relative and CS rates for various indications vary widely. There is an increasing tendency to perform CSs without medical indication on maternal request. Women with higher socioeconomic status (SES) are more likely to give birth by CS. We aimed to study ...

Unemployment at municipality level is associated with an increased risk of small for gestational age births � a multilevel analysis of all singleton births during 2005�2010 in Finland

Introduction Neighbourhood level deprivation has been shown to influence adverse perinatal outcomes independent of individual level socioeconomic status (SES) in countries with high income inequality, such as the United States. The present study evaluates whether municipality level deprivation defined based on education (proportion of inhabitants with university level education), ...

The Association of Episiotomy with Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injury–A Population Based Matched Cohort Study

Objectives To estimate the independent association of episiotomy with obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) using first a cross-sectional and then a matched pair analysis. Design A matched cohort. Setting Data was gathered from the Finnish Medical Birth Register from 2004–2011. Population All singleton vaginal births (n = 303,758). Methods Women resulting matched pairs (n = ...

Association between an Internet-Based Measure of Area Racism and Black Mortality

Racial disparities in health are well-documented and represent a significant public health concern in the US. Racism-related factors contribute to poorer health and higher mortality rates among Blacks compared to other racial groups. However, methods to measure racism and monitor its associations with health at the population-level have remained elusive. In this study, we ...

Socioeconomic status affects the prevalence, but not the perinatal outcomes, of in vitro fertilization pregnancies

STUDY QUESTION Does maternal socioeconomic status (SES) confound or modify the association between IVF and perinatal outcome among singleton births?

The Burden of OASIS Increases along with Socioeconomic Position – Register-Based Analysis of 980,733 Births in Finland

Background Obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS) has been identified as a major preventable risk factor for anal incontinence. Objective Aim was to measure national variation in incidence of OASIS by socioeconomic status (SES). Methods A retrospective population based case-control study using the data derived from the Finnish Medical Birth Register for the years 1991–2010. A ...

Contribution of socioeconomic status to the risk of small for gestational age infants – a population-based study of 1,390,165 singleton live births in Finland

Background Small for gestational age (SGA) infants are at increased risk of short- and long-term adverse outcomes. Methods Population-based case–control study using data derived from the Finnish Medical Birth Register for the years 1987–2010 (total population of singleton live births n = 1,390,165). The aim was to quantify the importance of risk factors for SGA and describe their ...

Do measures matter? Comparing surface-density-derived and census-tract-derived measures of racial residential segregation

Background Racial residential segregation is hypothesized to affect population health by systematically patterning health-relevant exposures and opportunities according to individuals' race or income. Growing interest into the association between residential segregation and health disparities demands more rigorous appraisal of commonly used measures of segregation. Most current ...