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Worldwide trends in volume and quality of published protocols of randomized controlled trials

Introduction Publishing protocols of randomized controlled trials (RCT) facilitates a more detailed description of study rational, design, and related ethical and safety issues, which should promote transparency. Little is known about how the practice of publishing protocols developed over time. Therefore, this study describes the worldwide trends in volume and methodological ...

Choosing Important Health Outcomes for Comparative Effectiveness Research: An Updated Review and Identification of Gaps

Background The COMET (Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials) Initiative promotes the development and application of core outcome sets (COS), including relevant studies in an online database. In order to keep the database current, an annual search of the literature is undertaken. This study aimed to update a previous systematic review, in order to identify any further ...

Choosing Important Health Outcomes for Comparative Effectiveness Research: An Updated Review and User Survey

Background A COS represents an agreed minimum set of outcomes that should be measured and reported in all trials of a specific condition. The COMET (Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials) initiative aims to collate and stimulate the development and application of COS, by including data on relevant studies within a publically available internet-based resource. In recent ...

The Effectiveness of Disaster Risk Communication: A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies

methods. Competing Interests APPENDIX 1 PRISMA Checklist Download file Appendices 2-5 Download file One of the authors (Mike Clarke) is on the editorial board of PLOS Currents Disasters. The authors

Accumulating Research: A Systematic Account of How Cumulative Meta-Analyses Would Have Provided Knowledge, Improved Health, Reduced Harm and Saved Resources

Background “Cumulative meta-analysis” describes a statistical procedure to calculate, retrospectively, summary estimates from the results of similar trials every time the results of a further trial in the series had become available. In the early 1990s, comparisons of cumulative meta-analyses of treatments for myocardial infarction with advice promulgated through medical textbooks ...

The Use of Systematic Reviews and Other Research Evidence in Disasters and Related Areas: Preliminary Report of a Needs Assessment Survey

Objectives: This paper presents the initial data analysis for a survey to identify the attitudes towards systematic reviews and research of those involved in the humanitarian response to natural disasters and other crises; their priorities for evidence, and their preferences for accessing this information. Methods: Snowballing sampling techniques were used to recruit participants ...

Individual Participant Data (IPD) Meta-analyses of Randomised Controlled Trials: Guidance on Their Use

Jayne Tierney and colleagues offer guidance on how to spot a well-designed and well-conducted individual participant data meta-analysis.

Patience, Persistence and Pragmatism: Experiences and Lessons Learnt from the Implementation of Clinically Integrated Teaching and Learning of Evidence-Based Health Care – A Qualitative Study

Background Clinically integrated teaching and learning are regarded as the best options for improving evidence-based healthcare (EBHC) knowledge, skills and attitudes. To inform implementation of such strategies, we assessed experiences and opinions on lessons learnt of those involved in such programmes. Methods and Findings We conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 EBHC ...

Evidence for disaster risk reduction, planning and response: design of the Evidence Aid survey

Systematic reviews are now regarded as a key component of the decision making process in health care, and, increasingly, in other areas. This should also be true in disaster risk reduction, planning and response. Since the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004, The Cochrane Collaboration and others have been working together to strengthen the use and usefulness of systematic reviews in this ...

What Are the Effects of Teaching Evidence-Based Health Care (EBHC)? Overview of Systematic Reviews

Background An evidence-based approach to health care is recognized internationally as a key competency for healthcare practitioners. This overview systematically evaluated and organized evidence from systematic reviews on teaching evidence-based health care (EBHC). Methods/Findings We searched for systematic reviews evaluating interventions for teaching EBHC to health professionals ...

Sharing Individual Participant Data from Clinical Trials: An Opinion Survey Regarding the Establishment of a Central Repository

Background Calls have been made for increased access to individual participant data (IPD) from clinical trials, to ensure that complete evidence is available. However, despite the obvious benefits, progress towards this is frustratingly slow. In the meantime, many systematic reviews have already collected IPD from clinical trials. We propose that a central repository for these IPD ...

Standardising Outcomes in Paediatric Clinical Trials

Mike Clarke discusses a new systematic review examining studies that involved the selection of outcomes for use in paediatric clinical trials. ... 0 0 Mike Clarke is at the School of Nursing and Midwifery, Trinity College Dublin , Dublin , Ireland - Whealth care of children are hether decisions about the made by parents, carers, health

Choosing Important Health Outcomes for Comparative Effectiveness Research: A Systematic Review

Background A core outcome set (COS) is a standardised set of outcomes which should be measured and reported, as a minimum, in all effectiveness trials for a specific health area. This will allow results of studies to be compared, contrasted and combined as appropriate, as well as ensuring that all trials contribute usable information. The COMET (Core Outcome Measures for ...

Evidence for the Selective Reporting of Analyses and Discrepancies in Clinical Trials: A Systematic Review of Cohort Studies of Clinical Trials

In a systematic review of cohort studies, Kerry Dwan and colleagues examine the evidence for selective reporting and discrepancies in analyses between journal publications and other documents for clinical trials. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Doing New Research? Don't Forget the Old

Nobody should do a new research study, says Clarke, without first systematically reviewing the literature. And journal editors should insist that all research papers are accompanied by an up-to-date systematic review.

Optimal Evidence in Difficult Settings: Improving Health Interventions and Decision Making in Disasters

Martin Gerdin and colleagues argue that disaster health interventions and decision-making can benefit from an evidence-based approach Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Establishing a Minimum Dataset for Prospective Registration of Systematic Reviews: An International Consultation

Background In response to growing recognition of the value of prospective registration of systematic review protocols, we planned to develop a web-based open access international register. In order for the register to fulfil its aims of reducing unplanned duplication, reducing publication bias, and providing greater transparency, it was important to ensure the appropriate data were ...

How the Cochrane Collaboration Is Responding to the Asian Tsunami

colloquia. Mike Clarke is employed as Director of the UK Cochrane Centre and to work on systematic reviews.This employment depends on the value placed on the work of the Cochrane Collaboration and systematic ... Christian Medical College in Vellore,Tamil Nadu, India, and Coordinator of the South Asian Cochrane Network. Mike Clarke is Director of the UK Cochrane Centre in Oxford, United Kingdom. Sally Green is

Is Evidence-Based Medicine Relevant to the Developing World?

Siegfried is a South African Nuffield Medical Fellow at the University of Oxford (Oxford, United Kingdom). Mike Clarke is Director of the United Kingdom Cochrane Centre (Oxford, United Kingdom).The authors ... are involved in the work of the Cochrane Collaboration, but the views expressed in this article are their own and are not necessarily those of the Cochrane Collaboration 1 , Nandi Siegfried , Mike

Can We Systematically Review Studies That Evaluate Complex Interventions?

In three Viewpoints, Sasha Shepperd and colleagues, Geoff Wong, and Aziz Sheikh explore various approaches to help systematic reviewers who wish to review complex health interventions.