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Collating the knowledge base for core outcome set development: developing and appraising the search strategy for a systematic review

Background The COMET (Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials) Initiative is developing a publicly accessible online resource to collate the knowledge base for core outcome set development (COS) and the applied work from different health conditions. Ensuring that the database is as comprehensive as possible and keeping it up to date are key to its value for users. This ...

The use of systematic reviews in the planning, design and conduct of randomised trials: a retrospective cohort of NIHR HTA funded trials

Background A systematic review, with or without a meta-analysis, should be undertaken to determine if the research question of interest has already been answered before a new trial begins. There has been limited research on how systematic reviews are used within the design of new trials, the aims of this study were to investigate how systematic reviews of earlier trials are used in ...

Methodology in conducting a systematic review of systematic reviews of healthcare interventions

Background Hundreds of studies of maternity care interventions have been published, too many for most people involved in providing maternity care to identify and consider when making decisions. It became apparent that systematic reviews of individual studies were required to appraise, summarise and bring together existing studies in a single place. However, decision makers are ...

Chlorpromazine for schizophrenia: a Cochrane systematic review of 50 years of randomised controlled trials

Background Chlorpromazine (CPZ) remains one of the most common drugs used for people with schizophrenia worldwide, and a benchmark against which other treatments can be evaluated. Quantitative reviews are rare; this one evaluates the effects of chlorpromazine in the treatment of schizophrenia in comparison with placebo. Methods We sought all relevant randomised controlled trials ...

The use of anti stretch marks’ products by women in pregnancy: a descriptive, cross-sectional survey

Background Stretch marks (Striae gravidarum) are a cutaneous change occurring commonly during pregnancy. A variety of products are available and promoted as ways to prevent or reduce their development, but it is not clear what products are used most commonly. The objective of this study was to identify topical products used during pregnancy to prevent or reduce the development of ...

Professionals’ views of fetal monitoring during labour: a systematic review and thematic analysis

Background Current recommendations do not support the use of continuous electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) for low risk women during labour, yet EFM remains widespread in clinical practice. Consideration of the views, perspectives and experiences of individuals directly concerned with EFM application may be beneficial for identifying barriers to and facilitators for implementing ...

Comparison of midwife-led and consultant-led care of healthy women at low risk of childbirth complications in the Republic of Ireland: a randomised trial

Background No midwifery-led units existed in Ireland before 2004. The aim of this study was to compare midwife-led (MLU) versus consultant-led (CLU) care for healthy, pregnant women without risk factors for labour and delivery. Methods An unblinded, pragmatic randomised trial was designed, funded by the Health Service Executive (Dublin North-East). Following ethical approval, all ...

The Effectiveness of Disaster Risk Communication: A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies

methods. Competing Interests APPENDIX 1 PRISMA Checklist Download file Appendices 2-5 Download file One of the authors (Mike Clarke) is on the editorial board of PLOS Currents Disasters. The authors

The Use of Systematic Reviews and Other Research Evidence in Disasters and Related Areas: Preliminary Report of a Needs Assessment Survey

Objectives: This paper presents the initial data analysis for a survey to identify the attitudes towards systematic reviews and research of those involved in the humanitarian response to natural disasters and other crises; their priorities for evidence, and their preferences for accessing this information. Methods: Snowballing sampling techniques were used to recruit participants ...

Evidence for disaster risk reduction, planning and response: design of the Evidence Aid survey

Systematic reviews are now regarded as a key component of the decision making process in health care, and, increasingly, in other areas. This should also be true in disaster risk reduction, planning and response. Since the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004, The Cochrane Collaboration and others have been working together to strengthen the use and usefulness of systematic reviews in this ...

Can We Systematically Review Studies That Evaluate Complex Interventions?

In three Viewpoints, Sasha Shepperd and colleagues, Geoff Wong, and Aziz Sheikh explore various approaches to help systematic reviewers who wish to review complex health interventions.

Individual Participant Data (IPD) Meta-analyses of Randomised Controlled Trials: Guidance on Their Use

Jayne Tierney and colleagues offer guidance on how to spot a well-designed and well-conducted individual participant data meta-analysis.

The PRISMA Statement for Reporting Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of Studies That Evaluate Health Care Interventions: Explanation and Elaboration

Alessandro Liberati and colleagues present an Explanation and Elaboration of the PRISMA Statement, updated guidelines for the reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

Evidence for the Selective Reporting of Analyses and Discrepancies in Clinical Trials: A Systematic Review of Cohort Studies of Clinical Trials

In a systematic review of cohort studies, Kerry Dwan and colleagues examine the evidence for selective reporting and discrepancies in analyses between journal publications and other documents for clinical trials. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

How the Cochrane Collaboration Is Responding to the Asian Tsunami

colloquia. Mike Clarke is employed as Director of the UK Cochrane Centre and to work on systematic reviews.This employment depends on the value placed on the work of the Cochrane Collaboration and systematic ... Christian Medical College in Vellore,Tamil Nadu, India, and Coordinator of the South Asian Cochrane Network. Mike Clarke is Director of the UK Cochrane Centre in Oxford, United Kingdom. Sally Green is

Is Evidence-Based Medicine Relevant to the Developing World?

Siegfried is a South African Nuffield Medical Fellow at the University of Oxford (Oxford, United Kingdom). Mike Clarke is Director of the United Kingdom Cochrane Centre (Oxford, United Kingdom).The authors ... are involved in the work of the Cochrane Collaboration, but the views expressed in this article are their own and are not necessarily those of the Cochrane Collaboration 1 , Nandi Siegfried , Mike

Optimal Evidence in Difficult Settings: Improving Health Interventions and Decision Making in Disasters

Martin Gerdin and colleagues argue that disaster health interventions and decision-making can benefit from an evidence-based approach Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Standardising Outcomes in Paediatric Clinical Trials

Mike Clarke discusses a new systematic review examining studies that involved the selection of outcomes for use in paediatric clinical trials. ... 0 0 Mike Clarke is at the School of Nursing and Midwifery, Trinity College Dublin , Dublin , Ireland - Whealth care of children are hether decisions about the made by parents, carers, health

Doing New Research? Don't Forget the Old

Nobody should do a new research study, says Clarke, without first systematically reviewing the literature. And journal editors should insist that all research papers are accompanied by an up-to-date systematic review.

CONSORT for Reporting Randomized Controlled Trials in Journal and Conference Abstracts: Explanation and Elaboration

Background Clear, transparent, and sufficiently detailed abstracts of conferences and journal articles related to randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are important, because readers often base their assessment of a trial solely on information in the abstract. Here, we extend the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) Statement to develop a minimum list of essential ...