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The neural basis of the imitation drive

Spontaneous imitation is assumed to underlie the acquisition of important skills by infants, including language and social interaction. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine the neural basis of ‘spontaneously’ driven imitation, which has not yet been fully investigated. Healthy participants were presented with movie clips of meaningless...

Eight Personal Characteristics Associated with the Power to Live with Disasters as Indicated by Survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster

People perceive, judge, and behave differently in disasters and in a wide range of other difficult situations depending on their personal characteristics. The power to live, as captured by characteristics that are advantageous for survival in such situations, has thus far been modeled in arbitrary ways. Conceptualizing such characteristics in more objective ways may be helpful...

Temporal and Motor Representation of Rhythm in Fronto-Parietal Cortical Areas: An fMRI Study

When sounds occur with temporally structured patterns, we can feel a rhythm. To memorize a rhythm, perception of its temporal patterns and organization of them into a hierarchically structured sequence are necessary. On the other hand, rhythm perception can often cause unintentional body movements. Thus, we hypothesized that rhythm information can be manifested in two different...

From social-signal detection to higher social cognition: an fMRI approach

Implicit or automatic detection of social signals, which discriminate animate, intentional objects in the environment, is essential for higher social cognition and its development. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we identified the neural substrate of detecting simple visual social signals and examined its functional link with the mechanism of inferring another’s...

Neural Mechanism for Mirrored Self-face Recognition

Self-face recognition in the mirror is considered to involve multiple processes that integrate 2 perceptual cues: temporal contingency of the visual feedback on one's action (contingency cue) and matching with self-face representation in long-term memory (figurative cue). The aim of this study was to examine the neural bases of these processes by manipulating 2 perceptual cues...

The Neural Basis of Event Simulation: An fMRI Study

Event simulation (ES) is the situational inference process in which perceived event features such as objects, agents, and actions are associated in the brain to represent the whole situation. ES provides a common basis for various cognitive processes, such as perceptual prediction, situational understanding/prediction, and social cognition (such as mentalizing/trait inference...

Ongoing Activity in Temporally Coherent Networks Predicts Intra-Subject Fluctuation of Response Time to Sporadic Executive Control Demands

Can ongoing fMRI BOLD signals predict fluctuations in swiftness of a person’s response to sporadic cognitive demands? This is an important issue because it clarifies whether intrinsic brain dynamics, for which spatio-temporal patterns are expressed as temporally coherent networks (TCNs), have effects not only on sensory or motor processes, but also on cognitive processes...

Spatiotemporal Dynamics of High-Gamma Activities during a 3-Stimulus Visual Oddball Task

Although many studies have investigated the neural basis of top-down and bottom-up attention, it still requires refinement in both temporal and spatial terms. We used magnetoencephalography to investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of high-gamma (52–100 Hz) activities during top-down and bottom-up visual attentional processes, aiming to extend the findings from functional...

Neural correlates of adaptive social responses to real-life frustrating situations: a functional MRI study

Background Frustrating situations are encountered daily, and it is necessary to respond in an adaptive fashion. A psychological definition states that adaptive social behaviors are “self-performing” and “contain a solution.” The present study investigated the neural correlates of adaptive social responses to frustrating situations by assessing the dimension of causal attribution...

White Matter Microstructural Changes as Vulnerability Factors and Acquired Signs of Post-Earthquake Distress

Many survivors of severe disasters need psychological support, even those not suffering post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The critical issue in understanding the psychological response after experiencing severe disasters is to distinguish neurological microstructural underpinnings as vulnerability factors from signs of emotional distress acquired soon after the stressful...

Neural Correlates of the Difference between Working Memory Speed and Simple Sensorimotor Speed: An fMRI Study

The difference between the speed of simple cognitive processes and the speed of complex cognitive processes has various psychological correlates. However, the neural correlates of this difference have not yet been investigated. In this study, we focused on working memory (WM) for typical complex cognitive processes. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired during...

Compensatory Effort Parallels Midbrain Deactivation during Mental Fatigue: An fMRI Study

Fatigue reflects the functioning of our physiological negative feedback system, which prevents us from overworking. When fatigued, however, we often try to suppress this system in an effort to compensate for the resulting deterioration in performance. Previous studies have suggested that the effect of fatigue on neurovascular demand may be influenced by this compensatory effort...

Mental Visual Synthesis is Originated in the Fronto-temporal Network of the Left Hemisphere

Mental visual synthesis is the capacity for experiencing, constructing, or manipulating ‘mental imagery’. To investigate brain networks involved in mental visual synthesis, brain activity was measured in right-handed healthy volunteers during mental imagery tasks, in which the subjects were instructed to imagine a novel object, that does not exist in the real world, by composing...