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Cognitive functioning following stabilisation from first episode mania

Griffiths Fellowship, The University of Melbourne. Murat Yücel is supported by a NHMRC Senior Research Fellowship 1021973. Michael Berk is supported by a NHMRC Senior Principal Research Fellowship 1059660

Cognitive impairment in first-episode mania: a systematic review of the evidence in the acute and remission phases of the illness

There is evidence of cognitive impairment that persists in the remission phase of bipolar disorder; however, the extent of the deficits that occur from the first onset of the disorder remains unclear. This is the first systematic review on cognitive functioning in the early stages of bipolar I disorder. The aim of the study was to identify the patterns and degree of cognitive ...

Orbitofrontal sulcogyral patterns are related to temperamental risk for psychopathology

There are marked individual differences in the pattern of cortical (sulcogyral) folding in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and there is a growing literature suggesting that these individual differences are associated with risk for psychotic disorders. To date, however, no study has investigated whether OFC folding patterns are associated with broader risk factors relevant to a ...

Sex differences in structural brain asymmetry predict overt aggression in early adolescents

The devastating social, emotional and economic consequences of human aggression are laid bare nightly on newscasts around the world. Aggression is principally mediated by neural circuitry comprising multiple areas of the prefrontal cortex and limbic system, including the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), amygdala and hippocampus. A striking characteristic ...

Structural and Functional Imaging Studies in Chronic Cannabis Users: A Systematic Review of Adolescent and Adult Findings

Background The growing concern about cannabis use, the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide, has led to a significant increase in the number of human studies using neuroimaging techniques to determine the effect of cannabis on brain structure and function. We conducted a systematic review to assess the evidence of the impact of chronic cannabis use on brain structure and ...

Adolescents’ depressive symptoms moderate neural responses to their mothers’ positive behavior

The way that parents express their emotions during interactions with their adolescent children is important for adolescent adjustment, and predicts adolescent emotional problems such as depression. In the current study, we assessed whether adolescent depressive symptoms were associated with neural activity during exposure to their mother's affective behavior. Thirty adolescents (18 ...

Maternal responses to adolescent positive affect are associated with adolescents’ reward neuroanatomy

The development of reward-based learning and decision-making, and the neural circuitry underlying these processes, appears to be influenced negatively by adverse child-rearing environments characterized by abuse and other forms of maltreatment. No research to-date has investigated whether normative variations in the child-rearing environment have effects on adolescent brain ...

Modulation of Brain Resting-State Networks by Sad Mood Induction

BackgroundThere is growing interest in the nature of slow variations of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal observed in functional MRI resting-state studies. In humans, these slow BOLD variations are thought to reflect an underlying or intrinsic form of brain functional connectivity in discrete neuroanatomical systems. While these ‘resting-state networks’ may be ...

Mapping Brain Response to Pain in Fibromyalgia Patients Using Temporal Analysis of fMRI

Background Nociceptive stimuli may evoke brain responses longer than the stimulus duration often partially detected by conventional neuroimaging. Fibromyalgia patients typically complain of severe pain from gentle stimuli. We aimed to characterize brain response to painful pressure in fibromyalgia patients by generating activation maps adjusted for the duration of brain responses. ...

Individual Differences in Anterior Cingulate/Paracingulate Morphology Are Related to Executive Functions in Healthy Males

The neuropsychological correlates of inter-individual variations in cortical folding are poorly understood. Anterior cingulate (AC) cortex is one region characterized by considerable variability, particularly with respect to the paracingulate sulcus (PCS), which is present in only 30–60% of individuals and more commonly found in the left cerebral hemisphere. To investigate whether ...