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Search: authors:"Nam-Hyung Kim"

30 papers found.
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Toxic effects of atrazine on porcine oocytes and possible mechanisms of action

Because atrazine is a widely used herbicide, its adverse effects on the reproductive system have been extensively researched. In this study, we investigated the effects of atrazine exposure on porcine oocyte maturation and the possible mechanisms. Our results showed that the rates of oocyte maturation significantly decreased after treatment with 200 μM atrazine in vitro. Atrazine...

Inhibition of Fatty Acid Synthase Reduces Blastocyst Hatching through Regulation of the AKT Pathway in Pigs

Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is an enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of long-chain fatty acids. During oncogenesis, FASN plays a role in growth and survival rather than acting within the energy storage pathways. Here, the function of FASN during early embryonic development was studied using its specific inhibitor, C75. We found that the presence of the inhibitor reduced...

ADAM10 Is Involved in Cell Junction Assembly in Early Porcine Embryo Development

ADAM10 (A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease domain-containing protein 10) is a cell surface protein with a unique structure possessing both potential adhesion and protease domains. However, the role of ADAM10 in preimplantation stage embryos is not clear. In this study, we examined the expression patterns and functional roles of ADAM10 in porcine parthenotes during preimplantation...

CRISPR/Cas9 as Tool for Functional Study of Genes Involved in Preimplantation Embryo Development

The CRISPR/Cas9 system has proven to be an efficient gene-editing tool for genome modification of cells and organisms. However, the applicability and efficiency of this system in pig embryos have not been studied in depth. Here, we aimed to remove porcine OCT4 function as a model case using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Injection of Cas9 and single-guide RNA (sgRNA) against OCT4...

The Role of Glucose Metabolism on Porcine Oocyte Cytoplasmic Maturation and Its Possible Mechanisms

In the present study, we investigated the potential role of glucose and pyruvate in the cytoplasmic maturation of porcine oocytes by investigating the effect of glucose and/or pyruvate supplementation, in the presence or absence of 10% porcine follicular fluid (PFF), on meiotic maturation and subsequent embryo development. In the absence of 10% PFF, without exogenous addition of...

Melamine Induces Oxidative Stress in Mouse Ovary

Melamine is a nitrogen heterocyclic triazine compound which is widely used as an industrial chemical. Although melamine is not considered to be acutely toxic with a high LD50 in animals, food contaminated with melamine expose risks to the human health. Melamine has been reported to be responsible for the renal impairment in mammals, its toxicity on the reproductive system...

An Improved System for Generation of Diploid Cloned Porcine Embryos Using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Synchronized to Metaphase

Pigs provide outstanding models of human genetic diseases due to their striking similarities with human anatomy, physiology and genetics. Although transgenic pigs have been produced using genetically modified somatic cells and nuclear transfer (SCNT), the cloning efficiency was extremely low. Here, we report an improved method to produce diploid cloned embryos from porcine...

Scriptaid Treatment Decreases DNA Methyltransferase 1 Expression by Induction of MicroRNA-152 Expression in Porcine Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos

Abnormal epigenetic reprogramming of donor nuclei after somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is thought to be the main cause of low cloning efficiencies. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated a positive role of Scriptaid, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) that belongs to an existing class of hydroxamic acid-containing HDACis, on the development competence of cloned...

JMY Functions as Actin Nucleation-Promoting Factor and Mediator for p53-Mediated DNA Damage in Porcine Oocytes

Junction-mediating and regulatory protein(JMY) is a multifunctional protein with roles in the transcriptional co-activation of p53 and the regulation of actin nucleation promoting factors and, hence, cell migration; however, its role in the maturation of porcine oocytes is unclear. In the current study, we investigated functional roles of JMY in porcine oocytes. Porcine oocytes...

Fe(III) Is Essential for Porcine Embryonic Development via Mitochondrial Function Maintenance

Iron is an important trace element involved in several biological processes. The role of iron in porcine early embryonic development remains unknown. In the present study, we depleted iron (III, Fe3+) with deferoxamine (DFM), a specific Fe3+ chelator, in cultured porcine parthenotes and monitored embryonic development, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, and ATP...

Effect of ATM and HDAC Inhibition on Etoposide-Induced DNA Damage in Porcine Early Preimplantation Embryos

Oocyte maturation and embryonic development are sensitive to DNA damage. Compared with somatic cells or oocytes, little is known about the response to DNA damage in early preimplantation embryos. In this study, we examined DNA damage checkpoints and DNA repair mechanisms in parthenogenetic preimplantation porcine embryos. We found that most of the etoposide-treated embryos showed...

Small Molecule Inhibitor of Formin Homology 2 Domains (SMIFH2) Reveals the Roles of the Formin Family of Proteins in Spindle Assembly and Asymmetric Division in Mouse Oocytes

Dynamic actin reorganization is the main driving force for spindle migration and asymmetric cell division in mammalian oocytes. It has been reported that various actin nucleators including Formin-2 are involved in the polarization of the spindle and in asymmetric cell division. In mammals, the formin family is comprised of 15 proteins. However, their individual roles in spindle...

Identification of Putative Biomarkers for the Early Stage of Porcine Spermatogonial Stem Cells Using Next-Generation Sequencing

To identify putative biomarkers of porcine spermatogonial stem cells (pSSCs), total RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis was performed on 5- and 180-day-old porcine testes and on pSSC colonies that were established under low temperature culture conditions as reported previously. In total, 10,184 genes were selected using Cufflink software, followed by a logarithm and quantile...

Identification and In Vitro Derivation of Spermatogonia in Beagle Testis

Background In vitro culture of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) is important for exploration of SSCs self-renewal, differentiation, and manipulation. There are several reports on rodent SSC cultures; however, data on SSC cultures in domestic animals are limited. To provide basic scientific information on canine SSC cultures, we report canine testes development, and the...

Arp2/3 Complex Inhibition Prevents Meiotic Maturation in Porcine Oocytes

The Arp2/3 complex regulates actin nucleation, which is critical for a wide range of cellular processes, such as cell polarity, cell locomotion, and endocytosis. In the present study, we investigated the possible roles of the Arp2/3 complex in porcine oocytes during meiotic maturation. Immunofluorescent staining showed the Arp2/3 complex to localize mainly to the cortex of...

MKlp2 inhibitior paprotrain affects polar body extrusion during mouse oocyte maturation

Background Mammalian oocyte meiotic maturation involves a number of important processes, including spindle assembly and migration, cortical reorganization and polar body extrusion. Numerous proteins contribute to these processes, but it is unknown whether MKlp2 (mitotic kinesin-like protein 2; also called KIF20A), a microtubule-associated protein that regulates cytokinesis during...

Zinc Regulates Meiotic Resumption in Porcine Oocytes via a Protein Kinase C-Related Pathway

Zinc is an extremely important trace element that plays important roles in several biological processes. However, the function of zinc in meiotic division of porcine oocytes is unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of zinc during meiotic resumption in in vitro matured porcine oocytes. During meiotic division, a massive release of zinc was observed. The level of free...

JMY is required for asymmetric division and cytokinesis in mouse oocytes

JMY is a transcriptional co-factor of p53. Latest work has revealed that JMY is also an actin nucleation factor that regulates new filament assembly and activates Arp2/3 complex in somatic cells; however, roles of JMY in mouse oocyte are unknown. Here we showed the expression and functions of JMY during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. JMY mRNA is expressed largely from germinal...

Superovulation induces defective methylation in line-1 retrotransposon elements in blastocyst

Background Series of epigenetic events happen during preimplantation development. Therefore assistant reproduction techniques (ART) have the potential to disrupt epigenetic regulation during embryo development. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether defects in methylation patterns in blastocyst due to superovulation originate from abnormal expression of Dnmts...

Differential Expression of Programmed Cell Death on the Follicular Development in Normal and Miniature Pig Ovary

Follicles are important in oocyte maturation. Successful estrous cycle requires remodeling of follicular cells, and proper execution of programmed cell death is crucial for normal follicular development. The objectives of the present study were to understand programmed cell death during follicle development, to analyze the differential follicle development patterns, and to assess...