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Chromophores from hexeneuronic acids: identification of HexA-derived chromophores

Hexeneuronic acids (HexA) have long been known as triggers for discoloration processes in glucuronoxylan-containing cellulosic pulps. They are formed under the conditions of pulping from 4-O-methylglucuronic acid residues, and are removed in an “A stage” along the bleaching sequences, which mainly comprises acidic washing treatments. The chemical structures of HexA-derived...

Chromophores from hexeneuronic acids (HexA): synthesis of model compounds and primary degradation intermediates

Hexeneuronic acid (HexA) is formed under pulping conditions from 4-O-methyl-glucuronic acid residues in xylans by methanol elimination. It is usually removed by an acidic washing treatment (A-stage) within the pulp bleaching sequence. Hexeneuronic acid has long been recognized as a source of color generation in pulps, but the chemical structure of the actual chromophoric...

Chromophores from hexeneuronic acids: chemical behavior under peroxide bleaching conditions

Hexeneuronic acids (HexA) are a major cause of discoloration (yellowing/brightness reversion) in pulps from xylan-containing wood, being generated from the xylan’s 4-O-methylglucuronic acid residues. The HexA-derived chromophores, whose identification and structure confirmation have been described in the previous part of this series (Rosenau et al. in Cellulose, 2017), were...