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Transcriptome and proteome analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium systemic infection of wild type and immune-deficient mice

Salmonella enterica are a threat to public health. Current vaccines are not fully effective. The ability to grow in infected tissues within phagocytes is required for S. enterica virulence in systemic disease. As the infection progresses the bacteria are exposed to a complex host immune response. Consequently, in order to continue growing in the tissues, S. enterica requires the...

Quantitative Proteomics of the Infectious and Replicative Forms of Chlamydia trachomatis

The obligate intracellular developmental cycle of Chlamydia trachomatis presents significant challenges in defining its proteome. In this study we have applied quantitative proteomics to both the intracellular reticulate body (RB) and the extracellular elementary body (EB) from C. trachomatis. We used C. trachomatis L2 as a model chlamydial isolate for our study since it has a...

Novel R Pipeline for Analyzing Biolog Phenotypic Microarray Data

Data produced by Biolog Phenotype MicroArrays are longitudinal measurements of cells’ respiration on distinct substrates. We introduce a three-step pipeline to analyze phenotypic microarray data with novel procedures for grouping, normalization and effect identification. Grouping and normalization are standard problems in the analysis of phenotype microarrays defined as...

RNA-seq analysis of the influence of anaerobiosis and FNR on Shigella flexneri

Background Shigella flexneri is an important human pathogen that has to adapt to the anaerobic environment in the gastrointestinal tract to cause dysentery. To define the influence of anaerobiosis on the virulence of Shigella, we performed deep RNA sequencing to identify transcriptomic differences that are induced by anaerobiosis and modulated by the anaerobic Fumarate and...

The Murray collection of pre-antibiotic era Enterobacteriacae: a unique research resource

Studies of historical isolates inform on the evolution and emergence of important pathogens and phenotypes, including antimicrobial resistance. Crucial to studying antimicrobial resistance are isolates that predate the widespread clinical use of antimicrobials. The Murray collection of several hundred bacterial strains of pre-antibiotic era Enterobacteriaceae is an invaluable...

An O Antigen Capsule Modulates Bacterial Pathogenesis in Shigella sonnei

Shigella is the leading cause for dysentery worldwide. Together with several virulence factors employed for invasion, the presence and length of the O antigen (OAg) of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays a key role in pathogenesis. S. flexneri 2a has a bimodal OAg chain length distribution regulated in a growth-dependent manner, whereas S. sonnei LPS comprises a monomodal OAg...

The Population Structure of Vibrio cholerae from the Chandigarh Region of Northern India

Background Cholera infection continues to be a threat to global public health. The current cholera pandemic associated with Vibrio cholerae El Tor has now been ongoing for over half a century. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty-eight V. cholerae El Tor isolates associated with a cholera outbreak in 2009 from the Chandigarh region of India were characterised by a combination of...

Genomic Investigations Unmask Mycoplasma amphoriforme, a New Respiratory Pathogen

Background. Mycoplasma amphoriforme has been associated with infection in patients with primary antibody deficiency (PAD). Little is known about the natural history of infection with this organism and its ability to be transmitted in the community. Methods. The bacterial load was estimated in sequential sputum samples from 9 patients by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The...

Horizontally Acquired Glycosyltransferase Operons Drive Salmonellae Lipopolysaccharide Diversity

The immunodominant lipopolysaccharide is a key antigenic factor for Gram-negative pathogens such as salmonellae where it plays key roles in host adaptation, virulence, immune evasion, and persistence. Variation in the lipopolysaccharide is also the major differentiating factor that is used to classify Salmonella into over 2600 serovars as part of the Kaufmann-White scheme. While...

Genome Evolution and Plasticity of Serratia marcescens, an Important Multidrug-Resistant Nosocomial Pathogen

Mohamed Sebaihia 8 Sarah J. Coulthurst 3 Naomasa Gotoh 6 Nicholas R. Thomson 4 8 Jonathan J. Ewbank 5 11 12 Tetsuya Hayashi 9 10 0 Present address: CIIL-Inserm U1019, Institut Pasteur de Lille , Lille

Genomic Characterisation of Invasive Non-Typhoidal Salmonella enterica Subspecies enterica Serovar Bovismorbificans Isolates from Malawi

Background Invasive Non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) are an important cause of bacteraemia in children and HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa. Previous research has shown that iNTS strains exhibit a pattern of gene loss that resembles that of host adapted serovars such as Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A. Salmonella enterica serovar Bovismorbificans was a common serovar in...

Fitness of Escherichia coli strains carrying expressed and partially silent IncN and IncP1 plasmids

Background Understanding the survival of resistance plasmids in the absence of selective pressure for the antibiotic resistance genes they carry is important for assessing the value of interventions to combat resistant bacteria. Here, several poorly explored questions regarding the fitness impact of IncP1 and IncN broad host range plasmids on their bacterial hosts are examined...

Evolutionary diversification of an ancient gene family (rhs) through C-terminal displacement

Background Rhs genes are prominent features of bacterial genomes that have previously been implicated in genomic rearrangements in E. coli. By comparing rhs repertoires across the Enterobacteriaceae, this study provides a robust explanation of rhs diversification and evolution, and a mechanistic model of how rhs diversity is gained and lost. Results Rhs genes are ubiquitous and...

Genetic flux over time in the Salmonella lineage

Background DNA sequences that are shared between closely related organisms while being absent from their common ancestor and from sister lineages of that ancestor are likely to have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Over time, the composition of those sequences tends to become more similar to the compositional signature of their host (amelioration). Results From a whole...

Sequence-Based Analysis Uncovers an Abundance of Non-Coding RNA in the Total Transcriptome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

RNA sequencing provides a new perspective on the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by revealing an extensive presence of non-coding RNA, including long 5’ and 3’ untranslated regions, antisense transcripts, and intergenic small RNA (sRNA) molecules. More than a quarter of all sequence reads mapping outside of ribosomal RNA genes represent non-coding RNA, and the density of...

Ankyrin repeat domain-encoding genes in the wPip strain of Wolbachia from the Culex pipiens group

Background Wolbachia are obligate endosymbiotic bacteria maternally transmitted through the egg cytoplasm that are responsible for several reproductive disorders in their insect hosts, such as cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) in infected mosquitoes. Species in the Culex pipiens complex display an unusually high number of Wolbachia-induced crossing types, and based on present data...

Evidence for a lineage of virulent bacteriophages that target Campylobacter

Andrew R Timms 0 Joanna Cambray-Young Andrew E Scott 0 Nicola K Petty Phillippa L Connerton 0 Louise Clarke Kathy Seeger Mike Quail Nicola Cummings 0 Duncan J Maskell Nicholas R Thomson Ian F

A simple method for directional transcriptome sequencing using Illumina technology

High-throughput sequencing of cDNA has been used to study eukaryotic transcription on a genome-wide scale to single base pair resolution. In order to compensate for the high ribonuclease activity in bacterial cells, we have devised an equivalent technique optimized for studying complete prokaryotic transcriptomes that minimizes the manipulation of the RNA sample. This new...

Genomic and phenotypic variation in epidemic-spanning Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates

Background Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) has caused major epidemics of gastrointestinal infection in many different countries. In this study we investigate genome divergence and pathogenic potential in S. Enteritidis isolated before, during and after an epidemic in Uruguay. Results 266 S. Enteritidis isolates were genotyped using RAPD-PCR and a...

Salmonella bongori Provides Insights into the Evolution of the Salmonellae

The genus Salmonella contains two species, S. bongori and S. enterica. Compared to the well-studied S. enterica there is a marked lack of information regarding the genetic makeup and diversity of S. bongori. S. bongori has been found predominantly associated with cold-blooded animals, but it can infect humans. To define the phylogeny of this species, and compare it to S. enterica...