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Search: authors:"Nicholas R Waterfield"

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The Role of TcdB and TccC Subunits in Secretion of the Photorhabdus Tcd Toxin Complex

The Toxin Complex (TC) is a large multi-subunit toxin encoded by a range of bacterial pathogens. The best-characterized examples are from the insect pathogens Photorhabdus, Xenorhabdus and Yersinia. They consist of three large protein subunits, designated A, B and C that assemble in a 5∶1∶1 stoichiometry. Oral toxicity to a range of insects means that some have the potential to...

Inactivation of the Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Properties of Silver Ions by Biologically Relevant Compounds

There has been a recent surge in the use of silver as an antimicrobial agent in a wide range of domestic and clinical products, intended to prevent or treat bacterial infections and reduce bacterial colonization of surfaces. It has been reported that the antibacterial and cytotoxic properties of silver are affected by the assay conditions, particularly the type of growth media...

The KdpD/KdpE Two-Component System: Integrating K+ Homeostasis and Virulence

The two-component system (TCS) KdpD/KdpE, extensively studied for its regulatory role in potassium (K+) transport, has more recently been identified as an adaptive regulator involved in the virulence and intracellular survival of pathogenic bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, entero-haemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Yersinia pestis, Francisella species...

From Insect to Man: Photorhabdus Sheds Light on the Emergence of Human Pathogenicity

Photorhabdus are highly effective insect pathogenic bacteria that exist in a mutualistic relationship with Heterorhabditid nematodes. Unlike other members of the genus, Photorhabdus asymbiotica can also infect humans. Most Photorhabdus cannot replicate above 34°C, limiting their host-range to poikilothermic invertebrates. In contrast, P. asymbiotica must necessarily be able to...

Pdl1 Is a Putative Lipase that Enhances Photorhabdus Toxin Complex Secretion

The Toxin Complex (TC) is a large multi-subunit toxin first characterized in the insect pathogens Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus, but now seen in a range of pathogens, including those of humans. These complexes comprise three protein subunits, A, B and C which in the Xenorhabdus toxin are found in a 4∶1∶1 stoichiometry. Some TCs have been demonstrated to exhibit oral toxicity to...

Genome-Wide Analysis Reveals Loci Encoding Anti-Macrophage Factors in the Human Pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243

Burkholderia pseudomallei is an important human pathogen whose infection biology is still poorly understood. The bacterium is endemic to tropical regions, including South East Asia and Northern Australia, where it causes melioidosis, a serious disease associated with both high mortality and antibiotic resistance. B. pseudomallei is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular...

Photorhabdus adhesion modification protein (Pam) binds extracellular polysaccharide and alters bacterial attachment

Background Photorhabdus are Gram-negative nematode-symbiotic and insect-pathogenic bacteria. The species Photorhabdus asymbiotica is able to infect humans as well as insects. We investigated the secreted proteome of a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at different temperatures in order to identify proteins relevant to the infection of the two different hosts. Results A...

Comparative genomics of the emerging human pathogen Photorhabdus asymbiotica with the insect pathogen Photorhabdus luminescens

Background The Gram-negative bacterium Photorhabdus asymbiotica (Pa) has been recovered from human infections in both North America and Australia. Recently, Pa has been shown to have a nematode vector that can also infect insects, like its sister species the insect pathogen P. luminescens (Pl). To understand the relationship between pathogenicity to insects and humans in...