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Search: authors:"Norman Nausch"

15 papers found.
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Epidemiology of Mansonella perstans in the middle belt of Ghana

Background Mansonellosis was first reported in Ghana by Awadzi in the 1990s. Co-infections of Mansonella perstans have also been reported in a small cohort of patients with Buruli ulcer and their contacts. However, no study has assessed the exact prevalence of the disease in a larger study population. This study therefore aimed to find out the prevalence of M. perstans infection in ...

Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cell Proportions Are Diminished in Young Helminth Infected Children and Restored by Curative Anti-helminthic Treatment

Background Group 2 Innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are innate cells that produce the TH2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. The importance of these cells has recently been demonstrated in experimental models of parasitic diseases but there is a paucity of data on ILC2s in the context of human parasitic infections and in particular of the blood dwelling parasite Schistosoma haematobium. ...

Identifying and Evaluating Field Indicators of Urogenital Schistosomiasis-Related Morbidity in Preschool-Aged Children

Background Several studies have been conducted quantifying the impact of schistosome infections on health and development in school-aged children. In contrast, relatively little is known about morbidity levels in preschool-aged children (≤5 years) who have been neglected in terms of schistosome research and control. The aim of this study was to compare the utility of available ...

Differences in the Faecal Microbiome in Schistosoma haematobium Infected Children vs. Uninfected Children

Background Several infectious diseases and therapeutic interventions cause gut microbe dysbiosis and associated pathology. We characterised the gut microbiome of children exposed to the helminth Schistosoma haematobium pre- and post-treatment with the drug praziquantel (PZQ), with the aim to compare the gut microbiome structure (abundance and diversity) in schistosome infected vs. ...

Field evaluation of a new antibody-based diagnostic for Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni at the point-of-care in northeast Zimbabwe

Background Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for use at the point-of-care (POC) are likely to become increasingly useful as large-scale control programmes for schistosomiasis get underway. Given the low sensitivity of the reference standard egg count methods in detecting light infections, more sensitive tests will be required to monitor efforts aimed at eliminating schistosomiasis as ...

CD16 Expression on Monocytes in Healthy Individuals but Not Schistosome-Infected Patients Is Positively Associated with Levels of Parasite-Specific IgG and IgG1

Human IgG1 antibody responses are associated with protection against Schistosoma haematobium infection and are now a target for schistosome vaccine development. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between total IgG and the IgG subclasses and the monocyte IgG receptor, known as FcγRIIIa or CD16, in schistosome exposed people. Systemic levels of schistosome-specific ...

Cytokine Responses to the Anti-schistosome Vaccine Candidate Antigen Glutathione-S-transferase Vary with Host Age and Are Boosted by Praziquantel Treatment

Background Improved helminth control is required to alleviate the global burden of schistosomiasis and schistosome-associated pathologies. Current control efforts rely on the anti-helminthic drug praziquantel (PZQ), which enhances immune responses to crude schistosome antigens but does not prevent re-infection. An anti-schistosome vaccine based on Schistosoma haematobium ...

Integrated Analysis of Innate, Th1, Th2, Th17, and Regulatory Cytokines Identifies Changes in Immune Polarisation Following Treatment of Human Schistosomiasis

Background. Schistosomiasis elicits cross-regulatory immune responses, but it is unclear how antihelminthic treatment affects this balance. This study integrates data on 13 cytokines elicited by 3 schistosome to examine how praziquantel treatment alters immune polarization and whether post-treatment cytokine profiles influence reinfection status. Methods. Venous blood from 72 ...

Chitinase 3-Like 1 Protein Levels Are Elevated in Schistosoma haematobium Infected Children

Background Currently there are few studies characterising the nature and aetiology of human schistosome-related inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1), also known as YKL-40, a molecule associated with inflammatory processes, and schistosome infection, morbidity and systemic cytokine levels. Methods ...

Parasite-Derived MicroRNAs in Host Serum As Novel Biomarkers of Helminth Infection

Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short non-coding RNA that play important roles in disease processes in animals and are present in a highly stable cell-free form in body fluids. Here, we examine the capacity of host and parasite miRNAs to serve as tissue or serum biomarkers of Schistosoma mansoni infection. Methods/Principal Findings We used Exiqon miRNA microarrays to ...

Chronic Infection Drives Expression of the Inhibitory Receptor CD200R, and Its Ligand CD200, by Mouse and Human CD4 T Cells

Certain parasites have evolved to evade the immune response and establish chronic infections that may persist for many years. T cell responses in these conditions become muted despite ongoing infection. Upregulation of surface receptors with inhibitory properties provides an immune cell-intrinsic mechanism that, under conditions of chronic infection, regulates immune responses and ...

Schistosoma haematobium Treatment in 1–5 Year Old Children: Safety and Efficacy of the Antihelminthic Drug Praziquantel

Background Morbidity due to schistosomiasis is currently controlled by treatment of schistosome infected people with the antihelminthic drug praziquantel (PZQ). Children aged up to 5 years are currently excluded from schistosome control programmes largely due to the lack of PZQ safety data in this age group. This study investigated the safety and efficacy of PZQ treatment in such ...

Regulatory and Activated T Cells in Human Schistosoma haematobium Infections

Acquired immunity against helminths is characterised by a complex interplay between the effector Th1 and Th2 immune responses and it slowly manifests with age as a result of cumulative exposure to parasite antigens. Data from experimental models suggest that immunity is also influenced by regulatory T cells (Treg), but as yet studies on Treg in human schistosome infections are ...

Age-Related Patterns in Human Myeloid Dendritic Cell Populations in People Exposed to Schistosoma haematobium Infection

Background Urogenital schistosomiasis is caused by the helminth parasite Schistosoma haematobium. In high transmission areas, children acquire schistosome infection early in life with infection levels peaking in early childhood and subsequently declining in late childhood. This age-related infection profile is thought to result from the gradual development of protective acquired ...

Schistosome Infection Intensity Is Inversely Related to Auto-Reactive Antibody Levels

In animal experimental models, parasitic helminth infections can protect the host from auto-immune diseases. We conducted a population-scale human study investigating the relationship between helminth parasitism and auto-reactive antibodies and the subsequent effect of anti-helminthic treatment on this relationship. Levels of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and plasma IL-10 were ...