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Ligand-Doped Copper Oxo-hydroxide Nanoparticles are Effective Antimicrobials

manuscript was provided by all authors. Competing Interests Carlos A. P. Bastos, Nuno Faria, and Jonathan J. Powell are inventors on an MRC-owned patent detailing the use of copper oxo-hydroxide structures as

Removal of glucuronic acid from xylan is a strategy to improve the conversion of plant biomass to sugars for bioenergy

Plant lignocellulosic biomass can be a source of fermentable sugars for the production of second generation biofuels and biochemicals. The recalcitrance of this plant material is one of the major obstacles in its conversion into sugars. Biomass is primarily composed of secondary cell walls, which is made of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. Xylan, a hemicellulose, binds to...

Conversion of cellulosic materials into glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, by Pseudozyma spp. under SHF and SSF processes

Background Mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL) are glycolipids with unique biosurfactant properties and are produced by Pseudozyma spp. from different substrates, preferably vegetable oils, but also sugars, glycerol or hydrocarbons. However, solvent intensive downstream processing and the relatively high prices of raw materials currently used for MEL production are drawbacks in its...

An integrated map of HIV genome-wide variation from a population perspective

Background The HIV pandemic is characterized by extensive genetic variability, which has challenged the development of HIV drugs and vaccines. Although HIV genomes have been classified into different types, groups, subtypes and recombinants, a comprehensive study that maps HIV genome-wide diversity at the population level is still lacking to date. This study aims to characterize...

Monoclonal antibodies indicate low-abundance links between heteroxylan and other glycans of plant cell walls

Main conclusion The derivation of two sensitive monoclonal antibodies directed to heteroxylan cell wall polysaccharide preparations has allowed the identification of potential inter-linkages between xylan and pectin in potato tuber cell walls and also between xylan and arabinogalactan-proteins in oat grain cell walls. Plant cell walls are complex composites of structurally...

Unifying Viral Genetics and Human Transportation Data to Predict the Global Transmission Dynamics of Human Influenza H3N2

Information on global human movement patterns is central to spatial epidemiological models used to predict the behavior of influenza and other infectious diseases. Yet it remains difficult to test which modes of dispersal drive pathogen spread at various geographic scales using standard epidemiological data alone. Evolutionary analyses of pathogen genome sequences increasingly...

Emergence and potential for spread of Chikungunya virus in Brazil

Background In December 2013, an outbreak of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) caused by the Asian genotype was notified in the Caribbean. The outbreak has since spread to 38 regions in the Americas. By September 2014, the first autochthonous CHIKV infections were confirmed in Oiapoque, North Brazil, and in Feira de Santana, Northeast Brazil. Methods We compiled epidemiological and...

Development and application of a high throughput carbohydrate profiling technique for analyzing plant cell wall polysaccharides and carbohydrate active enzymes

Background Plant cell wall polysaccharide composition varies substantially between species, organs and genotypes. Knowledge of the structure and composition of these polysaccharides, accompanied by a suite of well characterised glycosyl hydrolases will be important for the success of lignocellulosic biofuels. Current methods used to characterise enzymatically released plant...

Caco-2 Cell Acquisition of Dietary Iron(III) Invokes a Nanoparticulate Endocytic Pathway

Dietary non-heme iron contains ferrous [Fe(II)] and ferric [Fe(III)] iron fractions and the latter should hydrolyze, forming Fe(III) oxo-hydroxide particles, on passing from the acidic stomach to less acidic duodenum. Using conditions to mimic the in vivo hydrolytic environment we confirmed the formation of nanodisperse fine ferrihydrite-like particles. Synthetic analogues of...