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From John Snow to omics: the long journey of environmental epidemiology

for Genomic Medicine , Turin , Italy 1 & Paolo Vineis A major difference between infectious and non-communicable diseases is that infectious diseases typically have unique necessary causes whereas

Causality in cancer research: a journey through models in molecular epidemiology and their philosophical interpretation

-210176796] to Paolo Vineis, and partially supported by the Arts and Humanities Research Council via grant AH/M005917/1 to Phyllis Illari and Federica Russo. The authors thank Christopher Wild for comments on

Socioeconomic indicators in epidemiologic research: A practical example from the LIFEPATH study

. Requests should be sent to the PI of the LIFEPATH Project, Paolo Vineis (e-mail . uk). Funding: This study is supported by the European Commission (Horizon 2020 grant nÊ 633666) and Background Several ... , Ragusa, Italy), Paolo Vineis (MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London UK), Peter Vollenweider

Long-Term Realism and Cost-Effectiveness: Primary Prevention in Combatting Cancer and Associated Inequalities Worldwide

The global figure of 14 million new cancer cases in 2012 is projected to rise to almost 22 million by 2030, with the burden in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) shifting from 59% to 65% of all cancer cases worldwide over this time. While the overheads of cancer care are set to rapidly increase in all countries worldwide irrespective of income, the limited resources to...

Climate change and the diversity of its health effects

Paolo Vineis 0 1 0 P. Vineis (&) Imperial College London , London, UK 1 Paolo Vineis is Chair of Environmental Epidemiology at Imperial College, London . His main interests are in the field of

Genome-wide association studies may be misinterpreted: genes versus heritability

Much of the literature on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is based on the premise that an important proportion of common diseases is heritable and that this proportion is likely to be due to genetic variants detectable with extensive scans of the DNA. Heritability is estimated from family studies, including twin studies and is based on the comparison of the variation in...

Environment and cancer: the legacy of Lorenzo Tomatis

As an introduction to the series of papers arising from the first ‘Lorenzo Tomatis Conference on Environment and Cancer’ , Tomatis’ contributions to research in cancer prevention are first noted, especially the ongoing programme ‘IARC Monographs on Carcinogenic Risk for humans’ that he established at the International Agency for Research on Cancer’ , of which he was the Director...

Reliability of Serum Metabolites over a Two-Year Period: A Targeted Metabolomic Approach in Fasting and Non-Fasting Samples from EPIC

Objective Although metabolic profiles have been associated with chronic disease risk, lack of temporal stability of metabolite levels could limit their use in epidemiological investigations. The present study aims to evaluate the reliability over a two-year period of 158 metabolites and compare reliability over time in fasting and non-fasting serum samples. Methods Metabolites...

Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology

Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s). Transmitted causes ("causes of causes") tend not to be systematically analysed. The...

MicroRNA expression in relation to different dietary habits: a comparison in stool and plasma samples

MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, are fundamental for the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Altered expression of miRNAs has been detected in cancers, not only in primary tissue but also in easily obtainable specimens like plasma and stools. miRNA expression is known to be modulated by diet (micro and macronutrients, phytochemicals) and...

Significance testing in ridge regression for genetic data

, Kim Overvad, Francoise Clavel-Chapelon, Rudolf Kaaks, Heiner Boeing, Antonia Trichopoulou, Franco Berrino, Domenico Palli, Salvatore Panico, Rosario Tumino, Paolo Vineis, Bas Buneo de Mesquita, Petra

Differentially methylated microRNAs in prediagnostic samples of subjects who developed breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer (EPIC-Italy) cohort

The crosstalk between microRNAs (miRNAs) and other epigenetic factors may lead to novel hypotheses about carcinogenesis identifying new targets for research. Because a single miRNA can regulate multiple downstream target genes, its altered expression may potentially be a sensitive biomarker to detect early malignant transformation and improve diagnosis and prognosis. In the...

Models of carcinogenesis: an overview

At least five coherent models of carcinogenesis have been proposed in the history of cancer research in the last century. Model 1 is mainly centered around mutations, and its main focus is on the chemical environment, radiation and viruses. Model 2 has to do mainly with genome instability and it focuses on familiality. Model 3 is based on non-genotoxic mechanisms, and clonal...

Salinity in Drinking Water and the Risk of (Pre)Eclampsia and Gestational Hypertension in Coastal Bangladesh: A Case-Control Study

Background Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are among the leading causes of maternal and perinatal death in low-income countries, but the aetiology remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between salinity in drinking water and the risk of (pre)eclampsia and gestational hypertension in a coastal community. Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted in...

Disease proportions attributable to environment

Population disease proportions attributable to various causal agents are popular as they present a simplified view of the contribution of each agent to the disease load. However they are only summary figures that may be easily misinterpreted or over-interpreted even when the causal link between an exposure and an effect is well established. This commentary discusses several...

Seasonality Modifies Methylation Profiles in Healthy People

difference in methylation levels of the study groups is expected to be moderate. This work has been made possible by grants from the World Cancer Research Fund and Compagnia di San Paolo (Torino) to Paolo ... Vineis, and partially supported by Piedmont Region. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. We would like to thank dr

Espresso Coffee Consumption and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in a Large Italian Cohort

Background The relationship between coffee consumption and coronary heart disease (CHD) has been investigated in several studies with discrepant results. We examined the association between Italian-style (espresso and mocha) coffee consumption and CHD risk. Methods We investigated 12,800 men and 30,449 women without history of cardiovascular disease recruited to the EPICOR...

Dynamics of smoking-induced genome-wide methylation changes with time since smoking cessation

Several studies have recently identified strong epigenetic signals related to tobacco smoking. However, an aspect that did not receive much attention is the evolution of epigenetic changes with time since smoking cessation. We conducted a series of epigenome-wide association studies to capture the dynamics of smoking-induced epigenetic changes after smoking cessation, using...

Epigenome-wide association study reveals decreased average methylation levels years before breast cancer diagnosis

Flower 1 Ed Curry 1 Nicholas Orr Katarzyna Tomczyk Michael E. Jones Alan Ashworth Anthony Swerdlow Marc Chadeau-Hyam 4 Eiliv Lund Montserrat Garcia-Closas Torkjel M. Sandanger James M. Flanagan 0 1 Paolo ... Vineis 0 3 4 0 Equal contributors 1 Epigenetics Unit, Division of Cancer, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London , 4th Floor IRDB, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road

Gene-specific DNA methylation profiles and LINE-1 hypomethylation are associated with myocardial infarction risk

Background DNA methylation profiles are responsive to environmental stimuli and metabolic shifts. This makes DNA methylation a potential biomarker of environmental-related and lifestyle-driven diseases of adulthood. Therefore, we investigated if white blood cells’ (WBCs) DNA methylation profiles are associated with myocardial infarction (MI) occurrence. Whole-genome DNA...