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Quantum Chemical Modeling of Hydrogen Bonding in Ionic Liquids

Hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) is an important and very general phenomenon. H-bonding is part of the basis of life in DNA, key in controlling the properties of water and ice, and critical to modern applications such as crystal engineering, catalysis applications, pharmaceutical and agrochemical development. H-bonding also plays a significant role for many ionic liquids (IL), ...

Maternal and Fetal Pharmacokinetics of Oral Radiolabeled and Authentic Bisphenol A in the Rhesus Monkey

The present study was conducted in pregnant rhesus monkeys to determine the rapidity and extent to which BPA reaches the fetal compartment following oral ingestion, and the 24-hr fate of BPA. To assess metabolism changes during the course of pregnancy, we compared BPA biotransformation during the second and third trimesters in the same animals, measuring the levels of sulfated, ...

Inactivation of Retinoblastoma Protein (Rb1) in the Oocyte: Evidence That Dysregulated Follicle Growth Drives Ovarian Teratoma Formation in Mice

The origin of most ovarian tumors is undefined. Here, we report development of a novel mouse model in which conditional inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene Rb1 in oocytes leads to the formation of ovarian teratomas (OTs). While parthenogenetically activated ooctyes are a known source of OT in some mutant mouse models, enhanced parthenogenetic propensity in vitro was not ...

Estrogenic Exposure Alters the Spermatogonial Stem Cells in the Developing Testis, Permanently Reducing Crossover Levels in the Adult

Bisphenol A (BPA) and other endocrine disrupting chemicals have been reported to induce negative effects on a wide range of physiological processes, including reproduction. In the female, BPA exposure increases meiotic errors, resulting in the production of chromosomally abnormal eggs. Although numerous studies have reported that estrogenic exposures negatively impact ...

Cytological Studies of Human Meiosis: Sex-Specific Differences in Recombination Originate at, or Prior to, Establishment of Double-Strand Breaks

Meiotic recombination is sexually dimorphic in most mammalian species, including humans, but the basis for the male:female differences remains unclear. In the present study, we used cytological methodology to directly compare recombination levels between human males and females, and to examine possible sex-specific differences in upstream events of double-strand break (DSB) ...

Bisphenol A Exposure Alters Developmental Gene Expression in the Fetal Rhesus Macaque Uterus

Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure results in numerous developmental and functional abnormalities in reproductive organs in rodent models, but limited data are available regarding BPA effects in the primate uterus. To determine if maternal oral BPA exposure affects fetal uterine development in a non-human primate model, pregnant rhesus macaques carrying female fetuses were exposed orally ...

Bisphenol A Exposure In Utero Disrupts Early Oogenesis in the Mouse

Estrogen plays an essential role in the growth and maturation of the mammalian oocyte, and recent studies suggest that it also influences follicle formation in the neonatal ovary. In the course of studies designed to assess the effect of the estrogenic chemical bisphenol A (BPA) on mammalian oogenesis, we uncovered an estrogenic effect at an even earlier stage of oocyte ...

Coordinating the segregation of sister chromatids during the first meiotic division: evidence for sexual dimorphism

Craig A. Hodges 0 Rene LeMaire-Adkins 0 Patricia A. Hunt 0 0 Department of Genetics and Center for Human Genetics, Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals of Cleveland , Cleveland

Meiotic aneuploidy in the XXY mouse: evidence that a compromised testicular environment increases the incidence of meiotic errors

Male mammals with two X chromosomes are sterile due to the loss of virtually all germ cells in the differentiating testis. The survival of rare germ cells, however, can give rise to patches of normal-appearing spermatogenesis in the adult testis. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) makes possible the establishment of a pregnancy using spermatozoa from severely oligozoospermic ...

Fertilization in vitro increases non-disjunction during early cleavage divisions in a mouse model system

BACKGROUND: We have been studying an unusual mouse—the BALB/cWt (Wt) male—in which the Y chromosome is susceptible to high rates of mitotic non-disjunction, particularly at the first two cleavage divisions. As these are the same divisions that human embryos generated through assisted reproductive technology must complete in an artificial setting, analysis of the Wt Y chromosome ...

Analysis of a malsegregating mouse Y chromosome: evidence that the earliest cleavage divisions of the mammalian embryo are non-disjunction-prone

Despite the clinical importance of human aneuploidy, we know little of the causes of mammalian non-disjunction. In part, this reflects the fact that, unlike lower organisms, segregation ‘impaired’ chromosomes are virtually non-existent in mammals. To address this issue, we have studied the mouse Y chromosome on the BALB/cWt (‘Wt’) inbred background, a system in which loss of the Y ...

Meiotic Recombination in Human Oocytes

Studies of human trisomies indicate a remarkable relationship between abnormal meiotic recombination and subsequent nondisjunction at maternal meiosis I or II. Specifically, failure to recombine or recombination events located either too near to or too far from the centromere have been linked to the origin of human trisomies. It should be possible to identify these abnormal ...

Tissue and Lineage-Specific Variation in Inactive X Chromosome Expression of the Murine Smcx Gene

Laura Carrel 0 Patricia A. Hunt 0 Huntington F. Willard 0 0 Department of Genetics and Center for Human Genetics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and University Hospitals of

Flawed Experimental Design Reveals the Need for Guidelines Requiring Appropriate Positive Controls in Endocrine Disruption Research

Frederick S. vom Saal 9 Benson T. Akingbemi 1 Scott M. Belcher 3 David A. Crain 11 David Crews 10 Linda C. Guidice jj Patricia A. Hunt jjj Csaba Leranth jjjj John Peterson Myers 2 Angel Nadal 9

X Inactivation Analysis and DNA Methylation Studies of the Ubiquitin Activating Enzyme E1 and PCTAIRE-1 Genes in Human and Mouse

Previously reported data on the X inactivation status of the ubiquitin activating enzyme E1 (UBE1) gene have been contradictory, and the issue has remained unsettled. Here we present three lines of evidence that UBE1 is expressed from the inactive X chromosome and therefore escapes X inactivation. First, by RNA in situ hybridization, UBE1 RNA is detected from both the active and ...