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19 papers found.
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Departmental leadership for learning in vocational and professional education

Background To maintain relevance, institutes for vocational and professional education (VPE) need to be responsive to changes in society and industry. This requires leaders and educators in VPE to keep developing themselves and their practices. In institutes for VPE many decisions regarding program curriculum and teaching practices are made at the department level. Yet, the...

Geographic distribution of amino acid mutations in DHFR and DHPS in Plasmodium vivax isolates from Lao PDR, India and Colombia

Background Non-synonymous mutations in dhfr and dhps genes in Plasmodium vivax are associated with sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (SP) resistance. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of point mutations in P. vivax dhfr (pvdhfr) and P. vivax dhps (pvdhps) genes in three countries: Lao PDR, India and Colombia. Methods Samples from 203 microscopically diagnosed vivax malaria...

Asymptomatic Plasmodium infections in 18 villages of southern Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR (Laos)

Background A large fraction of Plasmodium infections do not cause clinical signs and symptoms of disease and persist at densities in blood that are not detectable by microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests. These infections may be critical as a transmission reservoir in areas of low malaria endemicity. Understanding the epidemiology of these infections would be helpful for malaria...

Pharmacokinetic properties of intramuscular versus oral syrup paracetamol in Plasmodium falciparum malaria

Background Fever is an inherent symptom of malaria in both adults and children. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the recommended antipyretic as it is inexpensive, widely available and has a good safety profile, but patients may not be able to take the oral drug reliably. A comparison between the pharmacokinetics of oral syrup and intramuscular paracetamol given to patients with...

Accuracy of commercially available c-reactive protein rapid tests in the context of undifferentiated fevers in rural Laos

Background C-Reactive Protein (CRP) has been shown to be an accurate biomarker for discriminating bacterial from viral infections in febrile patients in Southeast Asia. Here we investigate the accuracy of existing rapid qualitative and semi-quantitative tests as compared with a quantitative reference test to assess their potential for use in remote tropical settings. Methods...

Estimating the Burden of Japanese Encephalitis Virus and Other Encephalitides in Countries of the Mekong Region

Diverse aetiologies of viral and bacterial encephalitis are widely recognized as significant yet neglected public health issues in the Mekong region. A robust analysis of the corresponding health burden is lacking. We retrieved 75 articles on encephalitis in the region published in English or in French from 1965 through 2011. Review of available data demonstrated that they are...

Performance of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin to distinguish viral from bacterial and malarial causes of fever in Southeast Asia

Background Poor targeting of antimicrobial drugs contributes to the millions of deaths each year from malaria, pneumonia, and other tropical infectious diseases. While malaria rapid diagnostic tests have improved use of antimalarial drugs, there are no similar tests to guide the use of antibiotics in undifferentiated fevers. In this study we estimate the diagnostic accuracy of...

Optimal health and disease management using spatial uncertainty: a geographic characterization of emergent artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum distributions in Southeast Asia

Background Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites are now present across much of mainland Southeast Asia, where ongoing surveys are measuring and mapping their spatial distribution. These efforts require substantial resources. Here we propose a generic ‘smart surveillance’ methodology to identify optimal candidate sites for future sampling and thus map the...

The graduate entry generation: a qualitative study exploring the factors influencing the career expectations and aspirations of a graduating cohort of graduate entry dental students in one London institution

in one London institution Paul Newton 0 Lyndon Cabot Nairn HF Wilson Jennifer E Gallagher 0 0 King's College London Dental Institute at Guy's, King's College and St Thomas's Hospitals Oral Health

Population Structure Shapes Copy Number Variation in Malaria Parasites

0 Marcos De Donato 7 Hectorina Rodulfo 7 Arjen Dondorp 5 6 Oralee H. Branch 4 Lastenia Ruiz Mesia 9 Paul Newton 5 8 Mayfong Mayxay 2 5 8 Alfred Amambua-Ngwa 11 David J. Conway 11 12 Franc¸ois Nosten 5

CryptoDex: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial of adjunctive dexamethasone in HIV-infected adults with cryptococcal meningitis: study protocol for a randomised control trial

Jeremy Day 0 Darma Imran Ahmed Rizal Ganiem Natriana Tjahjani Retno Wahyuningsih Robiatul Adawiyah David Dance Mayfong Mayxay Paul Newton Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh Sayaphet Rattanavong Adrienne K Chan

Optimal sampling designs for accurate estimation of parasite clearance in the context of artemisinin resistance

Arjen M Dondorp Rick M Fairhurst Duong Socheat Steffen Borrmann Anders Bjrkman Andreas Mrtensson Mayfong Mayxay Paul Newton Delia Bethell Youry Se Harald Noedl Abdoulaye A Djimde Nicholas J White Kasia

Safety and Efficacy of Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine in Falciparum Malaria: A Prospective Multi-Centre Individual Patient Data Analysis

Background The fixed dose antimalarial combination of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) is a promising new artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). We present an individual patient data analysis of efficacy and tolerability in acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria, from seven published randomized clinical trials conducted in Africa and South East Asia using a predefined in...

Adaptive Copy Number Evolution in Malaria Parasites

Copy number polymorphism (CNP) is ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes, but the degree to which this reflects the action of positive selection is poorly understood. The first gene in the Plasmodium folate biosynthesis pathway, GTP-cyclohydrolase I (gch1), shows extensive CNP. We provide compelling evidence that gch1 CNP is an adaptive consequence of selection by antifolate drugs...

Melioidosis and Pandora's Box in the Lao People's Democratic Republic

Melioidosis has not been recognized previously in Laos, but within months of starting a prospective study of community acquired septicemia in Vientiane, 2 patients with melioidosis were identified. One was a previously healthy, 44-year-old female rice farmer who presented with supraclavicular lymphadenitis and the other was a 74-year-old man with diabetes and renal calculi who...

Parasite Multiplication Potential and the Severity of Falciparum Malaria

The multiplication rates and invasiveness of Plasmodium falciparum parasites isolated from adult Thai patients hospitalized with uncomplicated malaria (n = 34) were compared with those from persons with severe malaria (n = 42). To simulate severe malaria and control for host effects, the in vitro cultures were adjusted to 1% parasitemia and used the same red blood cell donor. P...

Central Role of the Spleen in Malaria Parasite Clearance

In acute malaria, red blood cells (RBCs) that have been parasitized, but no longer contain a malaria parasite, are found in the circulation (ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen [RESA]-RBCs). These are thought to arise by splenic removal of dead or damaged intraerythrocytic parasites and return of the intact RBCs to the circulation. In a study of 5 patients with acute...

Platelet-Induced Autoagglutination of Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Red Blood Cells and Disease Severity in Thailand

The relationship of the platelet-mediated autoagglutination of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (IRBCs) to disease severity was investigated in 182 Thai patients with falciparum malaria; it was evident in 43% of uncomplicated malaria (n = 63), 41%of severemalaria (n = 104), and 100% of cerebral malaria (n = 15; P=.001) isolates. The median (range) number of IRBCs in...

The relationship between the haemoglobin concentration and the haematocrit in Plasmodium falciparum malaria

Mayxay Paul Newton Francois Nosten Piero Olliaro Lyda Osario Loretxu Pinoges Ric Price Mark Rowland Frank Smithuis Robert Taylor Nicholas J White Background: Malaria is a very important cause of