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Urban Health Indicator Tools of the Physical Environment: a Systematic Review

Urban health indicator (UHI) tools provide evidence about the health impacts of the physical urban environment which can be used in built environment policy and decision-making. Where UHI tools provide data at the neighborhood (and lower) scale they can provide valuable information about health inequalities and environmental deprivation. This review performs a census of UHI tools...

Socioeconomic and urban-rural differentials in exposure to air pollution and mortality burden in England

Socioeconomically disadvantaged populations often have higher exposures to particulate air pollution, which can be expected to contribute to differentials in life expectancy. We examined socioeconomic differentials in exposure and air pollution-related mortality relating to larger scale (5 km resolution) variations in background concentrations of selected pollutants across...

Challenges and Opportunities for Urban Environmental Health and Sustainability: the HEALTHY-POLIS initiative

Wilkinson 0 0 Department of Social and Environmental Health Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine , London WC1E 7HT , UK 1 Environmental Change Department, Centre for Radiation, Chemical

Characteristics and use of urban health indicator tools by municipal built environment policy and decision-makers: a systematic review protocol

Background There is wide agreement that there is a lack of attention to health in municipal environmental policy-making, such as urban planning and regeneration. Explanations for this include differing professional norms between health and urban environment professionals, system complexity and limited evidence for causality between attributes of the built environment and health...

CerealsDB 3.0: expansion of resources and data integration

Background The increase in human populations around the world has put pressure on resources, and as a consequence food security has become an important challenge for the 21st century. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the most important crops in human and livestock diets, and the development of wheat varieties that produce higher yields, combined with increased resistance to...

Clinical characteristics associated with the prescribing of SSRI medication in adolescents with major unipolar depression

Unipolar major depressions (MD) emerge markedly during adolescence. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) UK recommends psychological therapies, with accompanying selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) prescribed in severe cases only. Here, we seek to determine the extent and rationale of SSRI prescribing in adolescent MD before entering a randomised...

From Insect to Man: Photorhabdus Sheds Light on the Emergence of Human Pathogenicity

Photorhabdus are highly effective insect pathogenic bacteria that exist in a mutualistic relationship with Heterorhabditid nematodes. Unlike other members of the genus, Photorhabdus asymbiotica can also infect humans. Most Photorhabdus cannot replicate above 34°C, limiting their host-range to poikilothermic invertebrates. In contrast, P. asymbiotica must necessarily be able to...

Developing and testing a street audit tool using Google Street View to measure environmental supportiveness for physical activity

Background Walking for physical activity is associated with substantial health benefits for adults. Increasingly research has focused on associations between walking behaviours and neighbourhood environments including street characteristics such as pavement availability and aesthetics. Nevertheless, objective assessment of street-level data is challenging. This research...

Measurement error in time-series analysis: a simulation study comparing modelled and monitored data

Wilkinson 0 Mathew R Heal 1 Ruth M Doherty 4 Massimo Vieno 3 0 Department of Social and Environmental Health Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine , 15-17 Tavistock Place, London WC1H 9SH

Diversity of Beetle Genes Encoding Novel Plant Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes

Plant cell walls are a heterogeneous mixture of polysaccharides and proteins that require a range of different enzymes to degrade them. Plant cell walls are also the primary source of cellulose, the most abundant and useful biopolymer on the planet. Plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) are therefore important in a wide range of biotechnological processes from the production...

Pdl1 Is a Putative Lipase that Enhances Photorhabdus Toxin Complex Secretion

The Toxin Complex (TC) is a large multi-subunit toxin first characterized in the insect pathogens Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus, but now seen in a range of pathogens, including those of humans. These complexes comprise three protein subunits, A, B and C which in the Xenorhabdus toxin are found in a 4∶1∶1 stoichiometry. Some TCs have been demonstrated to exhibit oral toxicity to...

Microsatellites for the Marsh Fritillary Butterfly: De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing, and a Comparison with Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) Markers

Background Until recently the isolation of microsatellite markers from Lepidoptera has proved troublesome, expensive and time-consuming. Following on from a previous study of Edith's checkerspot butterfly, Euphydryas editha, we developed novel microsatellite markers for the vulnerable marsh fritillary butterfly, E. aurinia. Our goal was to optimize the process in order to reduce...

Long-term effects of flooding on mortality in England and Wales, 1994-2005: controlled interrupted time-series analysis

Background Limited evidence suggests that being flooded may increase mortality and morbidity among affected householders not just at the time of the flood but for months afterwards. The objective of this study is to explore the methods for quantifying such long-term health effects of flooding by analysis of routine mortality registrations in England and Wales. Methods Mortality...

5-HTTLPR and Early Childhood Adversities Moderate Cognitive and Emotional Processing in Adolescence

Background Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and exposure to early childhood adversities (CA) are independently associated with individual differences in cognitive and emotional processing. Whether these two factors interact to influence cognitive and emotional processing is not known. Methodology and Principal Findings We used a...

The importance of health co-benefits in macroeconomic assessments of UK Greenhouse Gas emission reduction strategies

We employ a single-country dynamically-recursive Computable General Equilibrium model to make health-focussed macroeconomic assessments of three contingent UK Greenhouse Gas (GHG) mitigation strategies, designed to achieve 2030 emission targets as suggested by the UK Committee on Climate Change. In contrast to previous assessment studies, our main focus is on health co-benefits...

Profiles of family-focused adverse experiences through childhood and early adolescence: The ROOTS project a community investigation of adolescent mental health

Background Adverse family experiences in early life are associated with subsequent psychopathology. This study adds to the growing body of work exploring the nature and associations between adverse experiences over the childhood years. Methods Primary carers of 1143 randomly recruited 14-year olds in Cambridgeshire and Suffolk, UK were interviewed using the Cambridge Early...

Declining Vulnerability to Temperature-related Mortality in London over the 20th Century

Kingdom and elsewhere. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Dr. Paul Wilkinson is supported by a Public Health Career Scientist Award (NHS Executive grant CCB/BS/PHCS031). Conflict of interest: none declared.

The Association of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection and Influenza with Emergency Admissions for Respiratory Disease in London: An Analysis of Routine Surveillance Data

Background. The importance of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in adults is not well known, because laboratory testing for RSV infection is not routine. Both RSV infection and influenza are seasonally related, and it is difficult to disentangle one from the other and to disentangle infection from the season and the cold. Methods. Emergency hospitalizations for...

Pyrosequencing the transcriptome of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum reveals multiple transcripts encoding insecticide targets and detoxifying enzymes

Background The whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum is an economically important crop pest in temperate regions that has developed resistance to most classes of insecticides. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance have not been characterised and, to date, progress has been hampered by a lack of nucleotide sequence data for this species. Here, we use pyrosequencing...