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Should Nepal be a Hindu State or a Secular State?

will not only guarantee the arrival of an inclusive democracy, but also make the whole population, including all its minorities, true owners of the land and its Constitution. Pawan Kumar Sen is ... Political Change in Nepal in Times of Transition,” at Leiden University, the Netherlands. Pawan Kumar Sen is grateful to Dr. Sudhindra Sharma, Executive Director of Interdisciplinary Analysts (IDA) and

Estimating Tunnel Strain in the Weak and Schistose Rock Mass Influenced by Stress Anisotropy: An Evaluation Based on Three Tunnel Cases from Nepal

Total plastic deformation in tunnels passing through weak and schistose rock mass consists of both time-independent and time-dependent deformations. The extent of this total deformation is heavily influenced by the rock mass deformability properties and in situ stress condition prevailing in the area. If in situ stress is not isotropic, the deformation magnitude is not only...

Assessing the Influence of Roasting Process Parameters on Mepiquat and Chlormequat Formation in Dark Barley Malts

The aim of this work was to examine the effect of temperature and time on mepiquat and chlormequat pesticides’ formation during the barley malt roasting process. The study was conducted for roasting of green malt and kilned malt. The barley used for the study was of the ecological type and verified by us to be free of any quaternary ammonium pesticides. In our study, we observed...

Determination of system level alterations in host transcriptome due to Zika virus (ZIKV) Infection in retinal pigment epithelium

. Author information Author notes Pawan Kumar Singh and Indu Khatri contributed equally to this work. AffiliationsDepartment of Ophthalmology, Visual and Anatomical Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit ... , Detroit, MI, USAAshok Kumar AuthorsSearch for Pawan Kumar Singh in:Nature Research journals • PubMed • Google Scholar Search for Indu Khatri in:Nature Research journals • PubMed • Google Scholar Search

Comparative study of chitosan and chitosan–gelatin scaffold for tissue engineering

A number of orthopedic disorders and bone defect issues are solved by scaffold-based therapy in tissue engineering. The biocompatibility of chitosan (polysaccharide) and its similarity with glycosaminoglycan makes it a bone-grafting material. The current work focus on the synthesis of chitosan and chitosan–gelatin scaffold for hard tissue engineering. The chitosan and chitosan...

IFNγ-producing CD4+ T lymphocytes: the double-edged swords in tuberculosis

IFNγ-producing CD4+ T cells (IFNγ+CD4+ T cells) are the key orchestrators of protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Primarily, these cells act by enabling Mtb-infected macrophages to enforce phagosome-lysosome fusion, produce reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNIs), and activate autophagy pathways. However, TB is a heterogeneous disease and a host of...

Autophagy induction by Mycobacterium indicus pranii promotes Mycobacterium tuberculosis clearance from RAW 264.7 macrophages

Singh, Mohd Saqib, Ananya Gupta, Pawan Kumar, Sangeeta Bhaskar. 14 / 16 15 / 16 1. Koul A , Herget T , Klebl B , Ullrich A ( 2004 ) Interplay between mycobacteria and host signalling pathways . Nat Rev

PRmePRed: A protein arginine methylation prediction tool

predictive performance of model trained with different features subset for Acknowledgments We acknowledge Mr. Rajan Pandey for help and suggestions regarding manuscript figures. Methodology: Pawan Kumar ... , Ashutosh Pandey, Dinesh Gupta. Author Contributions Conceptualization: Joseph Joy, Dinesh Gupta. Data curation: Joseph Joy. Formal analysis: Pawan Kumar, Ashutosh Pandey. Funding acquisition: Dinesh Gupta

Threat of wheat blast to South Asia’s food security: An ex-ante analysis

. Validation: Thakur Prasad Tiwari, Naresh C. D. Barma, Paritosh Kumar Malaker. Writing ± original draft: Khondoker Abdul Mottaleb, Pawan Kumar Singh, Kai Sonder. Writing ± review & editing: Gideon Kruseman

Adult pulmonary tuberculosis as a pathological manifestation of hyperactive antimycobacterial immune response

The intricate relationship between tuberculosis (TB) and immune system remains poorly understood. It is generally believed that weakening of the immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis leads to reactivation of latent infection into the active pulmonary disease. However, heterogeneous nature of TB and failure of rationally designed vaccines in clinical trials raises...

A tree of life based on ninety-eight expressed genes conserved across diverse eukaryotic species

Conceptualization: Pawan Kumar Jayaswal, Nagendra Kumar Singh. Data curation: Pawan Kumar Jayaswal, Vivek Dogra. Formal analysis: Pawan Kumar Jayaswal. Funding acquisition: Nagendra Kumar Singh. Investigation ... : Tilak Raj Sharma, Nagendra Kumar Singh. Methodology: Pawan Kumar Jayaswal, Asheesh Shanker, Nagendra Kumar Singh. Project administration: Tilak Raj Sharma. Resources: Tilak Raj Sharma. Software: Pawan

Image Matching Based on Local Phase Quantization Applied for Measuring the Tensile Properties of High Elongation Materials

In recent years, high elongation materials are widely used. Therefore, it is important to investigate the tensile properties of high elongation materials for engineering applications. Video extensometer is equipment for measuring the materials’ tensile properties. It uses image processing technology to match data points and measures the actual deformation. However, when measuring...

Cellulose nanofiber aerogel as a promising biomaterial for customized oral drug delivery

Cellulose nanofiber aerogel as a promising biomaterial for customized oral drug delivery Jyoti Bhandari,1 Harshita Mishra,1 Pawan Kumar Mishra,2 Rupert Wimmer,2,3 Farhan J Ahmad,1 Sushama

Burden and Correlates of Falls among Rural Elders of South India: Mobility and Independent Living in Elders Study

Health, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Correspondence should be addressed to Pawan Kumar Sharma; moc.oohay@snawaprd Received 14 February 2017; Revised 25 April 2017; Accepted 3 May 2017; Published 13 June 2017 ... Academic Editor: Fulvio Lauretani Copyright © 2017 Pawan Kumar Sharma et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use

Organochlorine pesticide level in patients with chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology and its association with renal function

Background Involvement of agrochemicals have been suggested in the development of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu). The association between CKDu and blood level of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in CKDu patients has been examined in the present study. Methods All the recruited study subjects (n = 300) were divided in three groups, namely, healthy control (n...

A Study of Moment Based Features on Handwritten Digit Recognition

. Mullick Road, Kolkata, West Bengal 700032, India Received 3 November 2015; Revised 16 January 2016; Accepted 27 January 2016 Academic Editor: Miin-Shen Yang Copyright © 2016 Pawan Kumar Singh et al

THPdb: Database of FDA-approved peptide and protein therapeutics

THPdb ( is a manually curated repository of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved therapeutic peptides and proteins. The information in THPdb has been compiled from 985 research publications, 70 patents and other resources like DrugBank. The current version of the database holds a total of 852 entries, providing comprehensive information...

Response of nitrogen-fixing water fern Azolla biofertilization to rice crop

The water fern Azolla harbors nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae as symbiont in its dorsal leaves and is known as potent N2 fixer. Present investigation was carried out to study the influence of fresh Azolla when used as basal incorporation in soil and as dual cropped with rice variety Mahsoori separately and together with and without chemical nitrogen fertilizer in...

Retinal Photoreceptor Expresses Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) and Elicits Innate Responses Following TLR Ligand and Bacterial Challenge

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in host defense against microbial pathogens. Our previous studies have shown that TLRs are expressed on various retinal cells (Microglia and Müller glia) and orchestrate retinal innate responses in bacterial endophthalmitis. In this study, we used a well-characterized mouse cone photoreceptor cell line (661W); and demonstrated...