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Mitochondria and Alzheimer’s Disease: the Role of Mitochondrial Genetic Variation

University , 4102 LSB, Provo, UT 84602 , USA 1 Perry G. Ridge Purpose of Review Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, affects an increasing number of people worldwide, has a rapidly

Correction to: Linkage, whole genome sequence, and biological data implicate variants in RAB10 in Alzheimer’s disease resilience

The original version of this article [1] unfortunately contained a typographical error. The ‘Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative’ was erroneously included as ‘Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initative’ in the author list of the article.

Linkage, whole genome sequence, and biological data implicate variants in RAB10 in Alzheimer’s disease resilience

Background While age and the APOE ε4 allele are major risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a small percentage of individuals with these risk factors exhibit AD resilience by living well beyond 75 years of age without any clinical symptoms of cognitive decline. Methods We used over 200 “AD resilient” individuals and an innovative, pedigree-based approach to identify genetic...

Genetic analysis, structural modeling, and direct coupling analysis suggest a mechanism for phosphate signaling in Escherichia coli

Background Proper phosphate signaling is essential for robust growth of Escherichia coli and many other bacteria. The phosphate signal is mediated by a classic two component signal system composed of PhoR and PhoB. The PhoR histidine kinase is responsible for phosphorylating/dephosphorylating the response regulator, PhoB, which controls the expression of genes that aid growth in...

Alzheimer’s Disease: Analyzing the Missing Heritability

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a complex disorder influenced by environmental and genetic factors. Recent work has identified 11 AD markers in 10 loci. We used Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis to analyze >2 million SNPs for 10,922 individuals from the Alzheimer’s Disease Genetics Consortium to assess the phenotypic variance explained first by known late-onset AD loci, and then by...

Strong Evidence for a Genetic Contribution to Late-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease Mortality: A Population-Based Study

BackgroundAlzheimer’s disease (AD) is an international health concern that has a devastating effect on patients and families. While several genetic risk factors for AD have been identified much of the genetic variance in AD remains unexplained. There are limited published assessments of the familiality of Alzheimer’s disease. Here we present the largest genealogy-based analysis...

Influence of Coding Variability in APP-Aβ Metabolism Genes in Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease

The cerebral deposition of Aβ42, a neurotoxic proteolytic derivate of amyloid precursor protein (APP), is a central event in Alzheimer’s disease (AD)(Amyloid hypothesis). Given the key role of APP-Aβ metabolism in AD pathogenesis, we selected 29 genes involved in APP processing, Aβ degradation and clearance. We then used exome and genome sequencing to investigate the single...

Population substructure in Cache County, Utah: the Cache County study

Background Population stratification is a key concern for genetic association analyses. In addition, extreme homogeneity of ethnic origins of a population can make it difficult to interpret how genetic associations in that population may translate into other populations. Here we have evaluated the genetic substructure of samples from the Cache County study relative to the HapMap...

Variant Tool Chest: an improved tool to analyze and manipulate variant call format (VCF) files

Background Since the advent of next-generation sequencing many previously untestable hypotheses have been realized. Next-generation sequencing has been used for a wide range of studies in diverse fields such as population and medical genetics, phylogenetics, microbiology, and others. However, this novel technology has created unanticipated challenges such as the large numbers of...

Mitochondrial Haplotypes Associated with Biomarkers for Alzheimer’s Disease

Various studies have suggested that the mitochondrial genome plays a role in late-onset Alzheimer’s disease, although results are mixed. We used an endophenotype-based approach to further characterize mitochondrial genetic variation and its relationship to risk markers for Alzheimer’s disease. We analyzed longitudinal data from non-demented, mild cognitive impairment, and late...

Mitochondrial genomic variation associated with higher mitochondrial copy number: the Cache County Study on Memory Health and Aging

Background The mitochondria are essential organelles and are the location of cellular respiration, which is responsible for the majority of ATP production. Each cell contains multiple mitochondria, and each mitochondrion contains multiple copies of its own circular genome. The ratio of mitochondrial genomes to nuclear genomes is referred to as mitochondrial copy number. Decreases...

A direct comparison of next generation sequencing enrichment methods using an aortopathy gene panel- clinical diagnostics perspective

Background Aortopathies are a group of disorders characterized by aneurysms, dilation, and tortuosity of the aorta. Because of the phenotypic overlap and genetic heterogeneity of diseases featuring aortopathy, molecular testing is often required for timely and correct diagnosis of affected individuals. In this setting next generation sequencing (NGS) offers several advantages...

Genome-Wide Association Study of CSF Levels of 59 Alzheimer's Disease Candidate Proteins: Significant Associations with Proteins Involved in Amyloid Processing and Inflammation

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 42 amino acid species of amyloid beta (Aβ42) and tau levels are strongly correlated with the presence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology including amyloid plaques and neurodegeneration and have been successfully used as endophenotypes for genetic studies of AD. Additional CSF analytes may also serve as useful endophenotypes that capture other...

Comparative Genomic Analyses of Copper Transporters and Cuproproteomes Reveal Evolutionary Dynamics of Copper Utilization and Its Link to Oxygen

Copper is an essential trace element in many organisms and is utilized in all domains of life. It is often used as a cofactor of redox proteins, but is also a toxic metal ion. Intracellular copper must be carefully handled to prevent the formation of reactive oxygen species which pose a threat to DNA, lipids, and proteins. In this work, we examined patterns of copper utilization...

Predicting Phenotypic Severity of Uncertain Gene Variants in the RET Proto-Oncogene

Although reported gene variants in the RET oncogene have been directly associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 and hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma, other mutations are classified as variants of uncertain significance (VUS) until the associated clinical phenotype is made clear. Currently, some 46 non-synonymous VUS entries exist in curated archives. In the...

Consensus: a framework for evaluation of uncertain gene variants in laboratory test reporting

Accurate interpretation of gene testing is a key component in customizing patient therapy. Where confirming evidence for a gene variant is lacking, computational prediction may be employed. A standardized framework, however, does not yet exist for quantitative evaluation of disease association for uncertain or novel gene variants in an objective manner. Here, complementary...

Composition and Evolution of the Vertebrate and Mammalian Selenoproteomes

Mammalian Selenoproteomes Marco Mariotti Perry G. Ridge Yan Zhang Alexei V. Lobanov Thomas H. Pringle Roderic Guigo Dolph L. Hatfield Vadim N. Gladyshev Vincent Laudet, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon

Mitochondrial Genomic Analysis of Late Onset Alzheimer’s Disease Reveals Protective Haplogroups H6A1A/H6A1B: The Cache County Study on Memory in Aging

Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and AD risk clusters within families. Part of the familial aggregation of AD is accounted for by excess maternal vs. paternal inheritance, a pattern consistent with mitochondrial inheritance. The role of specific mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants and haplogroups in AD risk is uncertain. Methodology...

Genetic studies of plasma analytes identify novel potential biomarkers for several complex traits

ScholarSearch for Perry G. Ridge in:Nature Research journals • PubMed • Google ScholarSearch for David Holtzman in:Nature Research journals • PubMed • Google ScholarSearch for John C. Morris in:Nature Research ... 410008, P.R. ChinaJian XiaHuman Genetics Programme, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Cambridge, CB10 1SA, UKJenny LordDepartment of Biology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USAMatthew Bailey, Perry G