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A stilbene synthase allele from a Chinese wild grapevine confers resistance to powdery mildew by recruiting salicylic acid signalling for efficient defence

Stilbenes are central phytoalexins in Vitis, and induction of the key enzyme stilbene synthase (STS) is pivotal for disease resistance. Here, we address the potential for breeding resistance using an STS allele isolated from Chinese wild grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata (VpSTS) by comparison with its homologue from Vitis vinifera cv. ‘Carigane’ (VvSTS). Although the coding regions ...

An ancestral allele of grapevine transcription factor MYB14 promotes plant defence

Peter Nick 2 Qiao Zhao, Tsinghua University 0 Institute of Molecular Genetics, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz , J.-J.-Becherweg 32, D-55128 Mainz , Germany 1 College of Life Sciences, Northwest

Genetic diversity of stilbene metabolism in Vitis sylvestris

Philippe Hugueney 1 Peter Nick 2 0 DLR Rheinpfalz State Education and Research Center of Viticulture and Horticulture and Rural Development , Breitenweg 71, D-67435 Neustadt , Germany 1 Métabolisme

Increased tolerance to salt stress in OPDA-deficient rice ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE mutants is linked to an increased ROS-scavenging activity

Salinity stress represents a global constraint for rice, the most important staple food worldwide. Therefore the role of the central stress signal jasmonate for the salt response was analysed in rice comparing the responses to salt stress for two jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis rice mutants (cpm2 and hebiba) impaired in the function of ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE (AOC) and their wild ...

Suppression of tubulin detyrosination by parthenolide recruits the plant-specific kinesin KCH to cortical microtubules

Detyrosination of α-tubulin seems to be conserved in all eukaryotes. However, its biological function in plants has remained obscure. A conserved C-terminal tyrosine is removed by a still unidentified tubulin–tyrosine carboxypeptidase (TTC) and can be religated by a tubulin–tyrosine ligase (TTL). To obtain insight into the still elusive biological function of this ...

Life and death under salt stress: same players, different timing?

Salinity does not only stress plants but also challenges human life and the economy by posing severe constraints upon agriculture. To understand salt adaptation strategies of plants, it is central to extend agricultural production to salt-affected soils. Despite high impact and intensive research, it has been difficult to dissect the plant responses to salt stress and to define the ...

The cytoskeleton is disrupted by the bacterial effector HrpZ, but not by the bacterial PAMP flg22, in tobacco BY-2 cells

Plant innate immunity is composed of two layers. Basal immunity is triggered by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as the flagellin-peptide flg22 and is termed PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). In addition, effector-triggered immunity (ETI) linked with programmed cell death and cytoskeletal reorganization can be induced by pathogen-derived factors, such as the Harpin ...

The jasmonate pathway mediates salt tolerance in grapevines

Salt stress is a major constraint for many crop plants, such as the moderately salt-sensitive economically important fruit crop grapevine. Plants have evolved different strategies for protection against salinity and drought. Jasmonate signalling is a central element of both biotic and abiotic stress responses. To discriminate stress quality, there must be cross-talk with parallel ...

The cytoskeleton enhances gene expression in the response to the Harpin elicitor in grapevine

The cytoskeleton undergoes dramatic reorganization during plant defence. This response is generally interpreted as part of the cellular repolarization establishing physical barriers against the invading pathogen. To gain insight into the functional significance of cytoskeletal responses for defence, two Vitis cell cultures that differ in their microtubular dynamics were used, and ...

A kinesin with calponin-homology domain is involved in premitotic nuclear migration

Interaction and cross-talk between microtubules and actin microfilaments are important for numerous processes during plant growth and development, including the control of cell elongation and tissue expansion, but little is known about the molecular components of this interaction. Plant kinesins with the calponin-homology domain (KCH) were recently identified and associated with a ...

Light can rescue auxin-dependent synchrony of cell division in a tobacco cell line

Pattern formation in plants has to cope with ambient variability and therefore must integrate environmental cues such as light. Synchrony of cell divisions was previously observed in cell files of tobacco suspension cultures, which represents a simple case of pattern formation. To develop cellular approaches for light-dependent patterning, light-responsive tobacco cell lines were ...

Tobacco Arp3 is localized to actin-nucleating sites in vivo

The polarity of actin is a central determinant of intracellular transport in plant cells. To visualize actin polarity in living plant cells, the tobacco homologue of the actin-related protein 3 (ARP3) was cloned and a fusion with the red fluorescent protein (RFP) was generated. Upon transient expression of these fusions in the tobacco cell line BY-2 (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Bright ...

Combination of Plant Metabolic Modules Yields Synthetic Synergies

The great potential of pharmacologically active secondary plant metabolites is often limited by low yield and availability of the producing plant. Chemical synthesis of these complex compounds is often too expensive. Plant cell fermentation offers an alternative strategy to overcome these limitations. However, production in batch cell cultures remains often inefficient. One reason ...

Tracking Se Assimilation and Speciation through the Rice Plant – Nutrient Competition, Toxicity and Distribution

Michael Riemann Peter Nick Lenny H. E. Winkel Jörg Göttlicher Ralph Steininger Rita Brendel Matthias von Brasch 0 Gabriele Konrad 0 Thomas Neumann 0 0 Institute of Applied Geosciences (AGW), Karlsruhe

The Phytoalexin Resveratrol Regulates the Initiation of Hypersensitive Cell Death in Vitis Cell

Resveratrol is a major phytoalexin produced by plants in response to various stresses and promotes disease resistance. The resistance of North American grapevine Vitis rupestris is correlated with a hypersensitive reaction (HR), while susceptible European Vitis vinifera cv. ‘Pinot Noir’ does not exhibit HR, but expresses basal defence. We have shown previously that in cell lines ...

De Novo Characterization of a Cephalotaxus hainanensis Transcriptome and Genes Related to Paclitaxel Biosynthesis

Cephalotaxus hainanensis, an endangered plant, is known to contain several metabolites with anti-cancer activity. Despite its clinical impact, the alkaloid metabolism of this species has remained largely uncharacterized. The potential of Cephalotaxus for metabolic engineering of medically interesting compounds has, so far, not been exploited, due to the almost complete lack of ...

Defence Signalling Triggered by Flg22 and Harpin Is Integrated into a Different Stilbene Output in Vitis Cells

Plants can activate defence to pathogen attack by two layers of innate immunity: basal immunity triggered by pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) linked with programmed cell death. Flg22 and Harpin are evolutionary distinct bacterial PAMPs. We have previously shown that Harpin triggers hypersensitive cell death ...

Actin as Deathly Switch? How Auxin Can Suppress Cell-Death Related Defence

Plant innate immunity is composed of two layers – a basal immunity, and a specific effector-triggered immunity, which is often accompanied by hypersensitive cell death. Initiation of cell death depends on a complex network of signalling pathways. The phytohormone auxin as central regulator of plant growth and development represents an important component for the modulation of plant ...