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Correction: p16INK4a Expression and Immunologic Aging in Chronic HIV Infection

Peter W. Hunt Steven G. Deeks Douglas F. Nixon Devi SenGupta OPEN ACCESS 1. Pereira Ribeiro S , M. Milush J , Cunha-Neto E , G. Kallas E , Kalil J , D. Passero LF , et al. ( 2016 ) p16INK4a Expression

p16INK4a Expression and Immunologic Aging in Chronic HIV Infection

Chronic HIV infection is characterized by increased immune activation and immunosenescence. p16 INK4a (p16) is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase antagonist family that inhibits cellular proliferation, and its protein expression increases during normal chronological aging. However, some infectious diseases can increase the expression of this anti-proliferative protein, ...

CD8 T-Cell Expansion and Inflammation Linked to CMV Coinfection in ART-treated HIV Infection

Background. Persistent CD8 T-cell expansion, low CD4/CD8 T-cell ratios, and heightened inflammation persist in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and are associated with increased risk of morbid outcomes. We explored the role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in CD8 lymphocytosis and inflammation in ART-treated HIV infection. Methods. ...

Natural Control of HIV-1 Replication and Long-Term Nonprogression: Overlapping but Distinct Phenotypes

Peter W. Hunt 0 0 Positive Health Program, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California , San Francisco - With 133 million individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1

Immunologic Basis of Cardiovascular Disease in HIV-Infected Adults

Cardiovascular complications are more common in human immunodeficiency virus–infected individuals than in age-matched uninfected individuals. Antiretroviral therapy reduces the risk of cardiovascular complications, suggesting that viral replication directly or indirectly causes vascular disease. Long-term effective antiretroviral therapy does not fully restore vascular health, and ...

Empiric Deworming and CD4 Count Recovery in HIV-Infected Ugandans Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy

Background There is conflicting evidence on the immunologic benefit of treating helminth co-infections (“deworming”) in HIV-infected individuals. Several studies have documented reduced viral load and increased CD4 count in antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve individuals after deworming. However, there are a lack of data on the effect of deworming therapy on CD4 count recovery among ...

Lymphoid Fibrosis Occurs in Long-Term Nonprogressors and Persists With Antiretroviral Therapy but May Be Reversible With Curative Interventions

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication causes lymphoid tissue (LT) fibrosis, which causes CD4+ T-cell depletion. It is unknown whether people who spontaneously control HIV replication have LT fibrosis. We measured LT fibrosis and CD4+ T cells in 25 HIV controllers, 10 noncontrollers, 45 HIV-positive individuals receiving therapy, and 10 HIV-negative individuals. Controllers ...

The Immunologic Effects of Mesalamine in Treated HIV-Infected Individuals with Incomplete CD4+ T Cell Recovery: A Randomized Crossover Trial

The anti-inflammatory agent, mesalamine (5-aminosalicylic acid) has been shown to decrease mucosal inflammation in ulcerative colitis. The effect of mesalamine in HIV-infected individuals, who exhibit abnormal mucosal immune activation and microbial translocation (MT), has not been established in a placebo-controlled trial. We randomized 33 HIV-infected subjects with CD4 counts ...

Gut Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction and Innate Immune Activation Predict Mortality in Treated HIV Infection

Background. While inflammation predicts mortality in treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the prognostic significance of gut barrier dysfunction and phenotypic T-cell markers remains unclear. Methods. We assessed immunologic predictors of mortality in a case-control study within the Longitudinal Study of the Ocular Complications of AIDS (LSOCA), using conditional ...

The Kynurenine Pathway of Tryptophan Catabolism, CD4+ T-Cell Recovery, and Mortality Among HIV-Infected Ugandans Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy

Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection–induced indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO) expression in activated monocytes and dendritic cells catabolizes tryptophan to kynurenine and other downstream catabolites that inhibit T-cell proliferation and interleukin 17 (IL-17) production. The prognostic significance of this pathway in treated HIV disease is unknown. ...

Lack of Evidence for mtDNA as a Biomarker of Innate Immune Activation in HIV Infection

Many human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals suffer from persistent immune activation. Chronic inflammation and immune dysregulation have been associated with an increased risk of age-related diseases even among patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy. The factors leading to immune activation are complex, but have been hypothesized to include persistent ...

Disinhibition in Risky Sexual Behavior in Men, but Not Women, during Four Years of Antiretroviral Therapy in Rural, Southwestern Uganda

Background In resource-rich areas, risky sexual behavior (RSB) largely diminishes after initiation of anti-retroviral therapy, with notable exceptions among some populations who perceive a protected benefit from anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Yet, there is limited data about long-term trends in risky sexual behavior among HIV-infected people in sub-Saharan Africa after initiation ...

Impact of HIV on CD8+ T Cell CD57 Expression Is Distinct from That of CMV and Aging

Background Chronic antigenic stimulation by cytomegalovirus (CMV) is thought to increase “immunosenesence” of aging, characterized by accumulation of terminally differentiated CD28- CD8+ T cells and increased CD57, a marker of proliferative history. Whether chronic HIV infection causes similar effects is currently unclear. Methods We compared markers of CD8+ T cell differentiation ...

Dissemination of Research Findings to Research Participants Living with HIV in Rural Uganda: Challenges and Rewards

David Bangsberg and colleagues explore the challenges and rewards of sharing research findings with participants living with HIV enrolled in observational research in rural sub-Saharan Africa.

Higher CD27+CD8+ T Cells Percentages during Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy Predict Greater Subsequent CD4+ T Cell Recovery in Treated HIV Infection

HIV-mediated immune dysfunction may influence CD4+ T cell recovery during suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). We analyzed cellular biomarkers of immunological inflammation, maturation, and senescence in HIV-infected subjects on early suppressive ART. We performed longitudinal analyses of peripheral immunological biomarkers of subjects on suppressive ART (n = 24) from early ...

Sexual Relationship Power and Depression among HIV-Infected Women in Rural Uganda

Background Depression is associated with increased HIV transmission risk, increased morbidity, and higher risk of HIV-related death among HIV-infected women. Low sexual relationship power also contributes to HIV risk, but there is limited understanding of how it relates to mental health among HIV-infected women. Methods Participants were 270 HIV-infected women from the Uganda AIDS ...

Antiretroviral Therapy Initiated Within 6 Months of HIV Infection Is Associated With Lower T-Cell Activation and Smaller HIV Reservoir Size

Background. CD4+/CD8+ T-cell activation levels often remain elevated in chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection despite initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). T-cell activation predicts early death and blunted CD4+ T-cell recovery during ART and may affect persistent HIV reservoir size. We investigated whether very early ART initiation is associated with lower ...

Limited HIV Infection of Central Memory and Stem Cell Memory CD4+ T Cells Is Associated with Lack of Progression in Viremic Individuals

A rare subset of HIV-infected individuals, designated viremic non-progressors (VNP), remain asymptomatic and maintain normal levels of CD4+ T-cells despite persistently high viremia. To identify mechanisms potentially responsible for the VNP phenotype, we compared VNPs (average >9 years of HIV infection) to HIV-infected individuals who have similar CD4+ T-cell counts and viral ...