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Associations between Season and Gametocyte Dynamics in Chronic Plasmodium falciparum Infections

Introduction In a markedly seasonal malaria setting, the transition from the transmission-free dry season to the transmission season depends on the resurgence of the mosquito population following the start of annual rains. The sudden onset of malaria outbreaks at the start of the transmission season suggests that parasites persist during the dry season and respond to either the...

Information use and plasticity in the reproductive decisions of malaria parasites

Background Investment in the production of transmissible stages (gametocytes) and their sex ratio are malaria parasite traits that underpin mosquito infectivity and are therefore central to epidemiology. Malaria parasites adjust their levels of investment into gametocytes and sex ratio in response to changes in the in-host environment (including red blood cell resource...

Analysis of Flow Cytometry Data by Matrix Relevance Learning Vector Quantization

Flow cytometry is a widely used technique for the analysis of cell populations in the study and diagnosis of human diseases. It yields large amounts of high-dimensional data, the analysis of which would clearly benefit from efficient computational approaches aiming at automated diagnosis and decision support. This article presents our analysis of flow cytometry data in the...

Characterization of FGFR1 Locus in sqNSCLC Reveals a Broad and Heterogeneous Amplicon

FGFR1 amplification occurs in ~20% of sqNSCLC and trials with FGFR inhibitors have selected FGFR1 amplified patients by FISH. Lung cancer cell lines were profiled for sensitivity to AZD4547, a potent, selective inhibitor of FGFRs 1–3. Sensitivity to FGFR inhibition was associated with but not wholly predicted by increased FGFR1 gene copy number. Additional biomarker assays...

Comparison of PfHRP-2/pLDH ELISA, qPCR and Microscopy for the Detection of Plasmodium Events and Prediction of Sick Visits during a Malaria Vaccine Study

. Ismail M. Bashir, obtained partial financial support from the University of Edinburgh. Petra Schneider was funded by the Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, Edinburgh. This work is published

Predicting mosquito infection from Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte density and estimating the reservoir of infection

Schneider 4 André Lin Ouédraogo 3 María-Gloria Basáñez 2 0 Department of Immunology and Infection, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine , London , United Kingdom 1 Department of Medical Microbiology

Stress, drugs and the evolution of reproductive restraint in malaria parasites

Sarah E. Reece () Eltayeb Ali Petra Schneider Hamza A. Babiker 0 Sudan Atomic Energy Commission , PO Box 3001, Khartoum , Sudan 1 Institutes of Evolution, Immunology and Infection Research, School of

Fitness costs of disrupting circadian rhythms in malaria parasites

Aidan J. O'Donnell Petra Schneider Harriet G. McWatters Sarah E. Reece 0 Department of Plant Sciences, Oxford University , Oxford OX1 3RB , UK 1 Centre for Immunity , Infection and Evolution

Spherical Harmonics Coefficients for Ligand-Based Virtual Screening of Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors

Background Molecular descriptors are essential for many applications in computational chemistry, such as ligand-based similarity searching. Spherical harmonics have previously been suggested as comprehensive descriptors of molecular structure and properties. We investigate a spherical harmonics descriptor for shape-based virtual screening. Methodology/Principal Findings We...

Inhibitors of Helicobacter pylori Protease HtrA Found by ‘Virtual Ligand’ Screening Combat Bacterial Invasion of Epithelia

Background The human pathogen Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a main cause for gastric inflammation and cancer. Increasing bacterial resistance against antibiotics demands for innovative strategies for therapeutic intervention. Methodology/Principal Findings We present a method for structure-based virtual screening that is based on the comprehensive prediction of ligand...

Virulence, drug sensitivity and transmission success in the rodent malaria, Plasmodium chabaudi

Petra Schneider () Andrew S. Bell Derek G. Sim Aidan J. O'Donnell Simon Blanford Krijn P. Paaijmans Andrew F. Read Sarah E. Reece 0 Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, School of

Does the drug sensitivity of malaria parasites depend on their virulence?

Background Chemotherapy can prompt the evolution of classical drug resistance, but selection can also favour other parasite traits that confer a survival advantage in the presence of drugs. The experiments reported here test the hypothesis that sub-optimal drug treatment of malaria parasites might generate survival and transmission advantages for virulent parasites. Methods Two...


Sexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum play a key role in the transmission of malaria. Studies on gametocytes are generally based on microscopic detection, but more sensitive detection methods for P. falciparum gametocytes frequently detect sub-patent gametocytes. We used Pfs25 mRNA quantitative-nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (QT-NASBA) to quantify gametocytes in 412...

Substantial Contribution of Submicroscopical Plasmodium falciparum Gametocyte Carriage to the Infectious Reservoir in an Area of Seasonal Transmission

Rubicon fellowship of the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO; Rubicon 825.08.025). Petra Schneider is funded by the Wellcome Trust. The funders had no role in study design, data


Submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum gametocytemia (< 5,000 gametocytes/mL) is common and may result in mosquito infection. We assessed the relation between gametocyte density and mosquito infection under experimental and field conditions using real-time quantitative nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (QT-NASBA) for gametocyte quantification. Serial dilutions of NF54 P...

Moderate Effect of Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapy on Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum

BackgroundArtemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) reduces microscopically confirmed gametocytemia and mosquito infection. However, molecular techniques have recently revealed high prevalences of submicroscopic gametocytemia. Our objective here was to determine the effect of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) monotherapy and treatment with SP plus amodiaquine (AQ), SP plus...