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New fluphenazine analogue with antimutagenic and anti-multidrug resistance activity—degradation profile and stability-indicating method

Hydrochloride of 10-{2-hydroxy-3-[N,N-bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]propyl}-2-trifluoromethylphenothiazine (Flu-A) is a analogue of neuroleptic fluphenazine. Flu-A exhibits anti-multidrug resistance, antimutagenic, proapoptopic, and cancer-chemopreventive activities in screening studies. To define identity, quality, and purity of new active substance it is necessary to develop a ...

Integument cell gelatinisation—the fate of the integumentary cells in Hieracium and Pilosella (Asteraceae)

Members of the genera Hieracium and Pilosella are model plants that are used to study the mechanisms of apomixis. In order to have a proper understanding of apomixis, knowledge about the relationship between the maternal tissue and the gametophyte is needed. In the genus Pilosella, previous authors have described the specific process of the “liquefaction” of the integument cells ...

Analysis of the cytoskeleton organization and its possible functions in male earthworm germ-line cysts equipped with a cytophore

We studied the organization of F-actin and the microtubular cytoskeleton in male germ-line cysts in the seminal vesicles of the earthworm Dendrobaena veneta using light, fluorescent and electron microscopy along with both chemically fixed tissue and life cell imaging. Additionally, in order to follow the functioning of the cytoskeleton, we incubated the cysts in colchicine, ...

Flower palate structure of the aquatic bladderworts Utricularia bremii Heer and U. minor L. from section Utricularia (Lentibulariaceae)

There is an enormous diversity in the structure of the flower palate of the carnivorous rootless genus Utricularia. This study aims to examine the structure of the palates in Utricularia bremii Heer and U. minor L of the Utricularia sect. Utricularia, which have a glandular palate type. In both species, the palate has only one type of glandular trichomes. Because of the occurrence ...

Integument cell differentiation in dandelions (Taraxacum, Asteraceae, Lactuceae) with special attention paid to plasmodesmata

The aim of the paper is to determine what happens with plasmodesmata when mucilage is secreted into the periplasmic space in plant cells. Ultrastructural analysis of the periendothelial zone mucilage cells was performed on examples of the ovule tissues of several sexual and apomictic Taraxacum species. The cytoplasm of the periendothelial zone cells was dense, filled by numerous ...

The Ovary of Tubifex tubifex (Clitellata, Naididae, Tubificinae) Is Composed of One, Huge Germ-Line Cyst that Is Enriched with Cytoskeletal Components

Recent studies on the ovary organization and oogenesis in Tubificinae have revealed that their ovaries are small polarized structures that are composed of germ cells in subsequent stages of oogenesis that are associated with somatic cells. In syncytial cysts, as a rule, each germ cell is connected to the central cytoplasmic mass, the cytophore, via only one stable intercellular ...

Immunodetection of some pectic, arabinogalactan proteins and hemicellulose epitopes in the micropylar transmitting tissue of apomictic dandelions (Taraxacum, Asteraceae, Lactuceae)

In apomictic Taraxacum species, the development of both the embryo and the endosperm does not require double fertilisation. However, a structural reduction of ovular transmitting tissue was not observed in apomictic dandelions. The aim of this study was to analyse the chemical composition of the cell walls to describe the presence of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), hemicellulose ...

Floral micromorphology of the Australian carnivorous bladderwort Utricularia dunlopii, a putative pseudocopulatory species

Flowers of sexually deceptive taxa generally possess a set of morphological and physiological characters that mimic their insect pollinators. These characters often include a specific insect-like floral configuration, together with scent glands (osmophores) that produce fragrances which chemically resemble insect sex pheromones. Furthermore, these flowers tend not to produce ...

Floral ultrastructure of two Brazilian aquatic-epiphytic bladderworts: Utricularia cornigera Studnička and U. nelumbifolia Gardner (Lentibulariaceae)

Utricularia cornigera and Utricularia nelumbifolia are giant, aquatic-epiphytic species of carnivorous bladderwort from southeastern Brazil that grow in the central ‘urns’ of bromeliads. Both species have large, colourful flowers. The main aim of our study is to ascertain whether the prominent floral palate of U. cornigera and U. nelumbifolia functions as an unguentarius—i.e. an ...

Are obligatory apomicts invested in the pollen tube transmitting tissue? Comparison of the micropyle ultrastructure between sexual and apomictic dandelions (Asteraceae, Lactuceae)

With the exception of the sunflower, little information concerning the micropyle ultrastructure of the family Asteraceae is available. The aim of our study was to compare the micropyle structure in amphimictic and apomictic dandelions. Ultrastructural studies using buds and flowers during anthesis have been done on the micropyle of the sexual and apomictic Taraxacum. In all of the ...

Actin cytoskeleton in the extra-ovular embryo sac of Utricularia nelumbifolia (Lentibulariaceae)

The actin cytoskeleton in the mature female gametophyte of angiosperms has been examined in only a few dicot and monocot species. The main purposes of this study were to identify how the actin cytoskeleton is arranged in the mature extra-ovular embryo sac in Utricularia nelumbifolia (Lentibulariaceae). We found that the extra-ovular part of the central cell has a well-developed ...

A comparative morphology of the male genitalia of Aphididae (Insecta, Hemiptera): part 2

The present study provides new data related to the morphology of the male genitalia of Aphididae. The structure of the male genitalia of 39 species from 23 genera of Aphididae was studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. In the species studied, the genitalia of males consist of a phallus composed of the sclerotized basal part with its articulation and a membranous ...

Cytochemical and ultrastructural aspects of aquatic carnivorous plant turions

Turions, which are modified shoot apices, are vegetative, dormant overwintering organs produced by perennial aquatic plants. In this study, the turion cytochemistry and ultrastructure of Aldrovanda vesiculosa, Utricularia vulgaris and U. stygia were compared with particular emphasis placed on storage substances. These three aquatic, rootless carnivorous plant species were studied ...

Comparative morphology of the male genitalia of Aphididae (Insecta, Hemiptera): part 1

The present study provides new data concerning the morphology of the male genitalia of Aphididae and unifies their nomenclature. The structure of the male genitalia of 31 species from 26 genera of Aphididae was studied with light and scanning electron microscopy. In the studied species, the genitalia of males consist of a phallus composed of the sclerotized basal part with its ...

Synergids and filiform apparatus in the sexual and apomictic dandelions from section Palustria (Taraxacum, Asteraceae)

An evolutionary trend to reduce “unnecessary costs” associated with the sexual reproduction of their amphimictic ancestors, which may result in greater reproductive success, has been observed among the obligatory apomicts. However, in the case of the female gametophyte, knowledge about this trend in apomicts is not sufficient because most of the ultrastructural studies of the ...

Ovaries of Tubificinae (Clitellata, Naididae) resemble ovary cords found in Hirudinea (Clitellata)

The ultrastructure of the ovaries and oogenesis was studied in three species of three genera of Tubificinae. The paired ovaries are small, conically shaped structures, connected to the intersegmental septum between segments X and XI by their narrow end. The ovaries are composed of syncytial cysts of germ cells interconnected by stable cytoplasmic bridges (ring canals) and ...

Organisation of the endosperm and endosperm–placenta syncytia in bladderworts (Utricularia, Lentibulariaceae) with emphasis on the microtubule arrangement

Multinucleate cells play an important role in higher plants, especially during reproduction; however, the configurations of their cytoskeletons, which are formed as a result of mitosis without cytokinesis, have mainly been studied in coenocytes. Previous authors have proposed that in spite of their developmental origin (cell fusion or mitosis without cytokinesis), in multinucleate ...

The F-actin cytoskeleton in syncytia from non-clonal progenitor cells

The actin cytoskeleton of plant syncytia (a multinucleate cell arising through fusion) is poorly known: to date, there have only been reports about F-actin organization in plant syncytia induced by parasitic nematodes. To broaden knowledge regarding this issue, we analyzed F-actin organization in special heterokaryotic Utricularia syncytia, which arise from maternal sporophytic ...

Morphology and ultrastructure of the midgut in Piscicola geometra (Annelida, Hirudinea)

This paper presents information on the organization of the midgut and its epithelium ultrastructure in juvenile and adult specimens of Piscicola geometra (Annelida, Hirudinea), a species which is a widespread ectoparasite found on the body and gills and in the mouth of many types of fish. The analysis of juvenile nonfeeding specimens helped in the explanation of all alterations in ...