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A next-generation microarray further reveals stage-enriched gene expression pattern in the blood fluke Schistosoma japonicum

Background Schistosomiasis is caused by infection with blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma, and ranks, in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), as the third most important neglected tropical disease. Schistosomes have several discrete life stages involving dramatic morphological changes during their development, which require subtle gene expression modulations to ...

Phagocytosis-inducing antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum upon immunization with a recombinant PfEMP1 NTS-DBL1α domain

Background Individuals living in endemic areas gradually acquire natural immunity to clinical malaria, largely dependent on antibodies against parasite antigens. There are many studies indicating that the variant antigen PfEMP1 at the surface of the parasitized red blood cell (pRBC) is one of the major targets of the immune response. It is believed that antibodies against PfEMP1 ...

Comparative Analysis of Transcriptional Profiles of Adult Schistosoma japonicum from Different Laboratory Animals and the Natural Host, Water Buffalo

Background Schistosomiasis is one of the most widely distributed parasitic diseases in the world. Schistosoma japonicum, a zoonotic parasite with a wide range of mammalian hosts, is one of the major pathogens of this disease. Although numerous studies on schistosomiasis japonica have been performed using laboratory animal models, systematic comparative analysis of whole-genome ...

A Unique Virulence Gene Occupies a Principal Position in Immune Evasion by the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum

Mutually exclusive gene expression, whereby only one member of a multi-gene family is selected for activation, is used by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum to escape the human immune system and perpetuate long-term, chronic infections. A family of genes called var encodes the chief antigenic and virulence determinant of P. falciparum malaria. var genes are transcribed in a ...

A novel Schistosoma japonicum endonuclease homologous to DNase II

Background Recent advances in studies of the Schistosoma japonicum genome have opened new avenues for the elucidation of parasite biology and the identification of novel targets for vaccines, drug development and early diagnostic tools. Results In this study, we surveyed the S. japonicum genome database for genes encoding nucleases. A total of 130 nucleases of 3 classes were found. ...

First insights into the microbial diversity in the omasum and reticulum of bovine using Illumina sequencing

The digestive systems of mammals harbor a complex gut microbiome, comprising bacteria and other microorganisms that confer metabolic and immunological benefits to the host. Ruminants that digest plant-based foods have a four-compartment stomach consisting of the rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum. The microorganisms in the stomach are essential for providing the host with ...

Expression Profile of the Schistosoma japonicum Degradome Reveals Differential Protease Expression Patterns and Potential Anti-schistosomal Intervention Targets

Blood fluke proteases play pivotal roles in the processes of invasion, nutrition acquisition, immune evasion, and other host-parasite interactions. Hundreds of genes encoding putative proteases have been identified in the recently published schistosome genomes. However, the expression profiles of these proteases in Schistosoma species have not yet been systematically analyzed. We ...

Plasma microRNAs are promising novel biomarkers for the early detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection

Boyin Jia 0 Zhiguang Chang 0 Xiaoyan Wei Huijun Lu Jigang Yin Ning Jiang Qijun Chen 0 Equal contributors Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Institute of Zoonosis/College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin

Genome-wide transcriptome analysis shows extensive alternative RNA splicing in the zoonotic parasite Schistosoma japonicum

Background Schistosoma japonicum is a pathogen of the phylum Platyhelminthes that causes zoonotic schistosomiasis in China and Southeast Asian countries where a lack of efficient measures has hampered disease control. The development of tools for diagnosis of acute and chronic infection and for novel antiparasite reagents relies on understanding the biological mechanisms that the ...

PfRON3 is an erythrocyte-binding protein and a potential blood-stage vaccine candidate antigen

Background Erythrocyte invasion by merozoites is an essential step in Plasmodium falciparum infection and leads to subsequent disease pathology. Proteins both on the merozoite surface and secreted from the apical organelles (micronemes, rhoptries and dense granules) mediate the invasion of erythrocytes; some of the molecules have been regarded as targets in the development of an ...

Discovery and Confirmation of Ligand Binding Specificities of the Schistosoma japonicum Polarity Protein Scribble

Background Schistosomiasis is a chronic debilitating parasitic disease that afflicts more than 200 million individuals worldwide. Long-term administration of chemotherapy with the single available drug, praziquantel, has led to growing concerns about drug resistance. The PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain is an important module found in many scaffolding proteins, which has been ...

Plasmodium falciparum Antigen 332 Is a Resident Peripheral Membrane Protein of Maurer's Clefts

During the intraerythrocytic development of Plasmodium falciparum, the malaria parasite remodels the host cell cytosol by inducing membranous structures termed Maurer's clefts and inserting parasite proteins into the red blood cell cytoskeleton and plasma membrane. Pf332 is the largest known asexual malaria antigen that is exported into the red blood cell cytosol where it ...

A comparative study of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in three healthy Chinese populations detected using native and recombinant antigens

Background Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common parasitic zoonoses. The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans varies widely worldwide. Detection of Toxoplasma-specific antibodies has been a gold standard method for both epidemiological investigation and clinical diagnosis. Genetic investigation indicated that there is a wide distribution of different genome ...

MicroRNA-Gene Expression Network in Murine Liver during Schistosoma japonicum Infection

Background Schistosomiasis japonica remains a significant public health problem in China and Southeast Asian countries. The most typical and serious outcome of the chronic oriental schistosomiasis is the progressive granuloma and fibrosis in the host liver, which has been a major medical challenge. However, the molecular mechanism underling the hepatic pathogenesis is still not ...

Genome-wide comparative analysis revealed significant transcriptome changes in mice after Toxoplasma gondii infection

Qijun Chen 0 1 0 MOH Key Laboratory of Systems Biology of Pathogens, Institute of Pathogen Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College , Beijing, Dongdan Santiao 9, Beijing

The extracellular matrix protein mindin as a novel adjuvant elicits stronger immune responses for rBAG1, rSRS4 and rSRS9 antigens of Toxoplasma gondii in BALB/c mice

://www.medcalc.org/manual/kaplan-meier.php). Acknowledgements This present study was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China to Qijun Chen (grant number 81130033) and to Ning Jiang

A Deep Analysis of the Small Non-Coding RNA Population in Schistosoma japonicum Eggs

Background Schistosoma japonicum is a parasitic flatworm that causes zoonotic schistosomiasis. The typical outcome of schistosomiasis is hepatic granuloma and fibrosis, which is primarily induced by soluble egg-derived antigens. Although schistosomal eggs represent an important pathogenic stage to the host, the biology of this critical stage is largely unknown. We previously ...

Mouse models of telomere dysfunction phenocopy skeletal changes found in human age-related osteoporosis

A major medical challenge in the elderly is osteoporosis and the high risk of fracture. Telomere dysfunction is a cause of cellular senescence and telomere shortening, which occurs with age in cells from most human tissues, including bone. Telomere defects contribute to the pathogenesis of two progeroid disorders characterized by premature osteoporosis, Werner syndrome and ...

Identification and Characterization of Argonaute Protein, Ago2 and Its Associated Small RNAs in Schistosoma japonicum

Background The complex life cycle of the genus Schistosoma drives the parasites to employ subtle developmentally dependent gene regulatory machineries. Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) are essential gene regulatory factors that, through their impact on mRNA and genome stability, control stage-specific gene expression. Abundant sncRNAs have been identified in this genus. However, ...

Identification of AtSM34, a novel tonoplast intrinsic protein-interacting polypeptide expressed in response to osmotic stress in germinating seedlings

Aquaporins are implicated in a wide variety of plant physiological processes, although the mechanisms involved in their regulation are not fully understood. To gain further insight into the regulatory factors involved in this process, we used a yeast two-hybrid system to screen for potential binding partners to the Arabidopsis tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP) AtTIP1;1. This was ...