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The Upwind Finite Volume Element Method for Two-Dimensional Burgers Equation

; Accepted 8 January 2013 Academic Editor: Xiaodi Li Copyright © 2013 Qing Yang. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use

Injection Effects on Sediment Transport in Closed-Conduit Flows

Experiments were conducted to investigate injection effects on sediment transport in closed-conduit flows. The results show that the sediment transport rate essentially remains unchanged when the ratio of the injection velocity and that at boiling, Vi/Vcr < 10. However, significant sediment transport rate is observed when Vi/Vcr increases beyond this limit. In the literature...

The combination approach of SVM and ECOC for powerful identification and classification of transcription factor

Background Transcription factors (TFs) are core functional proteins which play important roles in gene expression control, and they are key factors for gene regulation network construction. Traditionally, they were identified and classified through experimental approaches. In order to save time and reduce costs, many computational methods have been developed to identify TFs from...

Promoter hypomethylation, especially around the E26 transformation-specific motif, and increased expression of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 in BRCA-mutated serous ovarian cancer

Background Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) overexpression plays a critical role in ovarian cancer progression and the clinical development of PARP1 inhibitors to treat BRCA-mutated ovarian cancer has advanced rapidly. However, the mechanism regulating PARP1 expression remains unknown. Alterations in gene expression mediated by promoter methylation are being increasingly...

A link between premenopausal iron deficiency and breast cancer malignancy

Background Young breast cancer (BC) patients less than 45 years old are at higher risk of dying from the disease when compared to their older counterparts. However, specific risk factors leading to this poorer outcome have not been identified. Methods One candidate is iron deficiency, as this is common in young women and a clinical feature of young age. In the present study, we...

Loss of miR-133a expression associated with poor survival of breast cancer and restoration of miR-133a expression inhibited breast cancer cell growth and invasion

Background miRNAs, endogenous oligonucleotide RNAs, play an important role in mammary gland carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Detection of their expression and investigation of their functions could lead to discovery of novel biomarkers for breast cancer. Methods In situ hybridization was used to detect miR-133a expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast surgical...

Elevated AKR1C3 expression promotes prostate cancer cell survival and prostate cell-mediated endothelial cell tube formation: implications for prostate cancer progressioan

Background Aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C family member 3 (AKR1C3), one of four identified human AKR1C enzymes, catalyzes steroid, prostaglandin, and xenobiotic metabolism. In the prostate, AKR1C3 is up-regulated in localized and advanced prostate adenocarcinoma, and is associated with prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness. Here we propose a novel pathological function of AKR1C3 in...

Evolutionary study of the isoflavonoid pathway based on multiple copies analysis in soybean

Background Previous studies suggest that the metabolic pathway structure influences the selection and evolution rates of involved genes. However, most of these studies have exclusively considered a single gene copy encoding each enzyme in the metabolic pathway. Considering multiple-copy encoding enzymes could provide direct evidence of gene evolution and duplication patterns in...

Multitrait analysis of quantitative trait loci using Bayesian composite space approach

Background Multitrait analysis of quantitative trait loci can capture the maximum information of experiment. The maximum-likelihood approach and the least-square approach have been developed to jointly analyze multiple traits, but it is difficult for them to include multiple QTL simultaneously into one model. Results In this article, we have successfully extended Bayesian...

Systematic characterization of small RNAome during zebrafish early developmental stages

Background During early vertebrate development, various small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) such as MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are dynamically expressed for orchestrating the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT). Systematic analysis of expression profiles of zebrafish small RNAome will be greatly helpful for understanding the sRNA regulation during embryonic...

Alternative splicing and differential gene expression in colon cancer detected by a whole genome exon array

Background Alternative splicing is a mechanism for increasing protein diversity by excluding or including exons during post-transcriptional processing. Alternatively spliced proteins are particularly relevant in oncology since they may contribute to the etiology of cancer, provide selective drug targets, or serve as a marker set for cancer diagnosis. While conventional...

Design and implementation of the first nationwide, web-based Chinese Renal Data System (CNRDS)

Background In April 2010, with an endorsement from the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China, the Chinese Society of Nephrology launched the first nationwide, web-based prospective renal data registration platform, the Chinese Renal Data System (CNRDS), to collect structured demographic, clinical, and laboratory data for dialysis cases, as well as to establish a...

Validation of the Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy for pediatric patients from China

Background The Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) provides a useful tool for prediction of renal prognosis. However, the application of this classification in children with IgAN needs validation in different patient populations. Methods A total of 218 children with IgAN from 7 renal centers in China were enrolled. The inclusion criteria was similar to the original...

Reduced cortical thickness in right Heschl’s gyrus associated with auditory verbal hallucinations severity in first-episode schizophrenia

Weidan Pu Yinnan Song Tumbwene E. Mwansisya 0 Qing Yang Haihong Liu Zhening Liu 0 Baoci Shan Zhimin Xue 0 0 Mental Health Institute of the Second Xiangya Hospital, Key Laboratory of Psychiatry and Mental

Are quit attempts among U.S. female nurses who smoke different from female smokers in the general population? An analysis of the 2006/2007 tobacco use supplement to the current population survey

Background Smoking is a significant women's health issue. Examining smoking behaviors among occupational groups with a high prevalence of women may reveal the culture of smoking behavior and quit efforts of female smokers. The purpose of this study was to examine how smoking and quitting characteristics (i.e., ever and recent quit attempts) among females in the occupation of...

ITFP: an integrated platform of mammalian transcription factors

Summary: Investigation of transcription factors (TFs) and their downstream regulated genes (targets) is a significant issue in post-genome era, which can provide a brand new vision for some vital biological process. However, information of TFs and their targets in mammalian is far from sufficient. Here, we developed an integrated TF platform (ITFP), which included abundant TFs...

ESC reverses epithelial mesenchymal transition induced by transforming growth factor-β via inhibition of Smad signal pathway in HepG2 liver cancer cells

Background Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) mediated by TGF-β pays an important role in malignant tumor acquired abilities of migration and invasion. Our previous study showed that the extract of Stellera chamaejasme L. (ESC) was against proliferation of a variety of tumor cells, but there were no studies in the effects of ESC on EMT in tumor cells. In this study, TGF...

Effects of cellular iron deficiency on the formation of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiogenesis.

Background Young women diagnosed with breast cancer are known to have a higher mortality rate from the disease than older patients. Specific risk factors leading to this poorer outcome have not been identified. In the present study, we hypothesized that iron deficiency, a common ailment in young women, contributes to the poor outcome by promoting the hypoxia inducible factor-1...

Androgen receptor signaling is required for androgen-sensitive human prostate cancer cell proliferation and survival

Background Androgens and androgen receptors (AR) regulate normal prostate development and growth. They also are involved in pathological development of prostatic diseases, including benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). Antiandrogen therapy for PCa, in conjunction with chemical or surgical castration, offers initial positive responses and leads to massive...