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IMMUNOLOGY RESEARCH

We have identified a mechanism by which cytomegalovirus (CMV) interleukin-10 (IL-10) is utilized by glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) to maintain the immunosuppressive microenvironment. CMV has been ubiquitously detected within high-grade gliomas, but its role has not been fully elicited. GBMs harvested ex vivo were analyzed by flow cytometry to determine CMV antigen expression...

Alternative splicing and differential gene expression in colon cancer detected by a whole genome exon array

Background Alternative splicing is a mechanism for increasing protein diversity by excluding or including exons during post-transcriptional processing. Alternatively spliced proteins are particularly relevant in oncology since they may contribute to the etiology of cancer, provide selective drug targets, or serve as a marker set for cancer diagnosis. While conventional...

Structure and Function of the ζ-globin Upstream Regulatory Element

The human ζ-globin promoter contains a strong positive regulatory element in the 5′ flanking region, designated the ζ-globin upstream regulatory element (URE). In this study, we define the minimal sequences required for URE function and characterize the associated protein-DNA interactions. Deletion experiments show that the URE spans a 60 bp region located between 220 and 279 bp...

Pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox 1 (PBX1) shows functional and possible genetic association with bone mineral density variation

Bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the major determinants of risk for osteoporotic fracture. Multiple studies reveal that peak bone mass is under strong genetic influence. One of the major susceptibility loci for peak spine BMD has been mapped to chromosome 1q21–q23 in the Caucasian population. We have previously replicated this finding in Southern Chinese pedigrees and...

Expression of adamalysin 19/ADAM19 in the endometrium and placenta of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) during early pregnancy

A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) 19 may contribute to multiple processes including proteolysis, adhesion and intracellular signalling. These processes are also critical for embryo implantation. The aim of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal expression of the ADAM19 in rhesus monkey uteri on days 12, 18 and 26 of pregnancy. The results showed that in the...

Application of a nanotechnology antimicrobial spray to prevent lower urinary tract infection: a multicenter urology trial

Zhang Zhicong Li Weiping Su Qing Yang Qingli Chen Xuejing Wang Zhenni Ye JP Chen 0 Wings TY Loo 0 Louis WC Chow Adrian YS Yip Elizabeth LY Ng Mary NB Cheung Zhiping Wang 0 School of Chinese Medicine, The

Androgen receptor signaling is required for androgen-sensitive human prostate cancer cell proliferation and survival

Background Androgens and androgen receptors (AR) regulate normal prostate development and growth. They also are involved in pathological development of prostatic diseases, including benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). Antiandrogen therapy for PCa, in conjunction with chemical or surgical castration, offers initial positive responses and leads to massive...

Overexpression of SOS (Salt Overly Sensitive) Genes Increases Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis

Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress that decreases plant growth and productivity. Recently, it was reported that plants overexpressing AtNHX1 or SOS1 have significantly increased salt tolerance. To test whether overexpression of multiple genes can improve plant salt tolerance even more, we produced six different transgenic Arabidopsis plants that overexpress AtNHX1, SOS3...

Elevated AKR1C3 expression promotes prostate cancer cell survival and prostate cell-mediated endothelial cell tube formation: implications for prostate cancer progressioan

Background Aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C family member 3 (AKR1C3), one of four identified human AKR1C enzymes, catalyzes steroid, prostaglandin, and xenobiotic metabolism. In the prostate, AKR1C3 is up-regulated in localized and advanced prostate adenocarcinoma, and is associated with prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness. Here we propose a novel pathological function of AKR1C3 in...

Use of serial analysis of gene expression to reveal the specific regulation of gene expression profile in asthmatic rats treated by acupuncture

Background Asthma has become an important public health issue and approximately 300 million people have suffered from the disease worldwide. Nowadays, the use of acupuncture in asthma is increasing. This study intended to systematically analyze and compare the gene expression profiles between the asthmatic and acupuncture-treated asthmatic rat lung, and tried to gain insight into...

Validation of the Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy for pediatric patients from China

Background The Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) provides a useful tool for prediction of renal prognosis. However, the application of this classification in children with IgAN needs validation in different patient populations. Methods A total of 218 children with IgAN from 7 renal centers in China were enrolled. The inclusion criteria was similar to the original...

Multitrait analysis of quantitative trait loci using Bayesian composite space approach

Background Multitrait analysis of quantitative trait loci can capture the maximum information of experiment. The maximum-likelihood approach and the least-square approach have been developed to jointly analyze multiple traits, but it is difficult for them to include multiple QTL simultaneously into one model. Results In this article, we have successfully extended Bayesian...

The combination approach of SVM and ECOC for powerful identification and classification of transcription factor

Background Transcription factors (TFs) are core functional proteins which play important roles in gene expression control, and they are key factors for gene regulation network construction. Traditionally, they were identified and classified through experimental approaches. In order to save time and reduce costs, many computational methods have been developed to identify TFs from...

Investigating the first-cycle irreversibility of lithium metal oxide cathodes for Li batteries

Layered lithium metal oxide cathodes typically exhibit irreversibility during the first cycle in lithium cells when cycled in conventional voltage ranges (e.g., 3–4.3 V vs. Li+/Li). In this work, we have studied the first-cycle irreversibility of lithium cells containing various layered cathode materials using galvanostatic cycling and in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. When...

ITFP: an integrated platform of mammalian transcription factors

Summary: Investigation of transcription factors (TFs) and their downstream regulated genes (targets) is a significant issue in post-genome era, which can provide a brand new vision for some vital biological process. However, information of TFs and their targets in mammalian is far from sufficient. Here, we developed an integrated TF platform (ITFP), which included abundant TFs...

Identification of QTL genes for BMD variation using both linkage and gene-based association approaches

Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a risk factor for osteoporotic fracture with a high heritability. Previous large scale linkage study in Northern Chinese has identified four significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) for BMD variation on chromosome 2q24, 5q21, 7p21 and 13q21. We performed a replication study of these four QTL in 1,459 Southern Chinese from 306 pedigrees...

The early asthmatic response is associated with glycolysis, calcium binding and mitochondria activity as revealed by proteomic analysis in rats

Background The inhalation of allergens by allergic asthmatics results in the early asthmatic response (EAR), which is characterized by acute airway obstruction beginning within a few minutes. The EAR is the earliest indicator of the pathological progression of allergic asthma. Because the molecular mechanism underlying the EAR is not fully defined, this study will contribute to a...

Effects of cellular iron deficiency on the formation of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiogenesis.

Background Young women diagnosed with breast cancer are known to have a higher mortality rate from the disease than older patients. Specific risk factors leading to this poorer outcome have not been identified. In the present study, we hypothesized that iron deficiency, a common ailment in young women, contributes to the poor outcome by promoting the hypoxia inducible factor-1...

p53 Dependent Centrosome Clustering Prevents Multipolar Mitosis in Tetraploid Cells

Background p53 abnormality and aneuploidy often coexist in human tumors, and tetraploidy is considered as an intermediate between normal diploidy and aneuploidy. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether and how p53 influences the transformation from tetraploidy to aneuploidy. Principal Findings Live cell imaging was performed to determine the fates and mitotic...