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Search: authors:"Rachel M. McLoughlin"

8 papers found.
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The Zwitterionic Cell Wall Teichoic Acid of Staphylococcus aureus Provokes Skin Abscesses in Mice by a Novel CD4+ T-Cell-Dependent Mechanism

Zwitterionic polysaccharide (ZPS) components of the bacterial cell envelope have been shown to exert a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II-dependent activation of CD4+ T cells, which in turn can modulate the outcome and progression of infections in animal models. We investigated the impact of zwitterionic cell wall teichoic acid (WTA) produced by Staphylococcus aureus on...

Targeted Nasal Vaccination Provides Antibody-Independent Protection Against Staphylococcus aureus

Despite showing promise in preclinical models, anti–Staphylococcus aureus vaccines have failed in clinical trials. To date, approaches have focused on neutralizing/opsonizing antibodies; however, vaccines exclusively inducing cellular immunity have not been studied to formally test whether a cellular-only response can protect against infection. We demonstrate that nasal...

Bacteroides fragilis–Stimulated Interleukin-10 Contains Expanding Disease

Commensal symbionts may become pathogens upon escaping their habitat. In the gut, Bacteroides fragilis protects against colitis through induction of interleukin 10 (IL-10) by CD4+ T cells. When intestinal integrity is disrupted, B. fragilis and colonic contents escape into the peritoneum, causing abscesses and bacteremia. Whether the virulence mechanisms employed by B. fragilis...

Relative Contribution of Th1 and Th17 Cells in Adaptive Immunity to Bordetella pertussis: Towards the Rational Design of an Improved Acellular Pertussis Vaccine

Whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis is a re-emerging infectious disease despite the introduction of safer acellular pertussis vaccines (Pa). One explanation for this is that Pa are less protective than the more reactogenic whole cell pertussis vaccines (Pw) that they replaced. Although Pa induce potent antibody responses, and protection has been found to be associated...

Nasal Colonisation by Staphylococcus aureus Depends upon Clumping Factor B Binding to the Squamous Epithelial Cell Envelope Protein Loricrin

Staphylococcus aureus asymptomatically colonises the anterior nares, but the host and bacterial factors that facilitate colonisation remain incompletely understood. The S. aureus surface protein ClfB has been shown to mediate adherence to squamous epithelial cells in vitro and to promote nasal colonisation in both mice and humans. Here, we demonstrate that the squamous epithelial...

Nitric oxide synthase isoforms play distinct roles during acute peritonitis

Background. Acute peritonitis is the most frequent complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Increased nitric oxide (NO) release by NO synthase (NOS) isoforms has been implicated in acute peritonitis, but the role played by the NOS isoforms expressed in the peritoneum is unknown. Methods. We investigated the structural and functional consequences of acute peritonitis induced by...

Pneumolysin Activates the NLRP3 Inflammasome and Promotes Proinflammatory Cytokines Independently of TLR4

Pneumolysin (PLY) is a key Streptococcus pneumoniae virulence factor and potential candidate for inclusion in pneumococcal subunit vaccines. Dendritic cells (DC) play a key role in the initiation and instruction of adaptive immunity, but the effects of PLY on DC have not been widely investigated. Endotoxin-free PLY enhanced costimulatory molecule expression on DC but did not...