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Search: authors:"Rebecca K. Simmons"

24 papers found.
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Effect of screening for type 2 diabetes on risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality: a controlled trial among 139,075 individuals diagnosed with diabetes in Denmark between 2001 and 2009

Aims/hypothesis There is continuing debate about the net benefits of population screening for type 2 diabetes. We compared the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality among incident cases of type 2 diabetes in a screened group with those in an unscreened group. Methods In this register-based non-randomised controlled trial, eligible individuals were all men and women ...

Effect of population screening for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors on mortality rate and cardiovascular events: a controlled trial among 1,912,392 Danish adults

Aims/hypothesis Health check programmes for chronic disease have been introduced in a number of countries. However, there are few trials assessing the benefits and harms of these screening programmes at the population level. In a post hoc analysis, we evaluated the effect of population-based screening for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors on mortality rates and ...

Does training of general practitioners for intensive treatment of people with screen-detected diabetes have a spillover effect on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in ‘at risk’ individuals with normoglycaemia? Results from the ADDITION-Denmark cluster-randomised controlled trial

Aims/hypothesis Within a trial of intensive treatment of people with screen-detected diabetes, we aimed to assess a potential spillover effect of the trial intervention on incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality among people who screened positive on a diabetes risk questionnaire but who were normoglycaemic. Methods In the Anglo–Danish–Dutch Study of Intensive ...

Trajectories of glycaemia, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in South Asian and white individuals before diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: a longitudinal analysis from the Whitehall II cohort study

Aims/hypothesis South Asian individuals have reduced insulin sensitivity and increased risk of type 2 diabetes compared with white individuals. Temporal changes in glycaemic traits during middle age suggest that impaired insulin secretion is a particular feature of diabetes development among South Asians. We therefore aimed to examine ethnic differences in early changes in glucose ...

Does Training and Support of General Practitioners in Intensive Treatment of People with Screen-Detected Diabetes Improve Medication, Morbidity and Mortality in People with Clinically-Diagnosed Diabetes? Investigation of a Spill-Over Effect in a Cluster RCT

Introduction Very few studies have examined the potential spill-over effect of a trial intervention in general practice. We investigated whether training and support of general practitioners in the intensive treatment of people with screen-detected diabetes improved rates of redeemed medication, morbidity and mortality in people with clinically-diagnosed diabetes. Methods This is a ...

Repeat Cardiovascular Risk Assessment after Four Years: Is There Improvement in Risk Prediction?

Background Framingham risk equations are widely used to predict cardiovascular disease based on health information from a single time point. Little is known regarding use of information from repeat risk assessments and temporal change in estimated cardiovascular risk for prediction of future cardiovascular events. This study was aimed to compare the discrimination and risk ...

Physical Activity, Sedentary Time and Physical Capability in Early Old Age: British Birth Cohort Study

Purpose To investigate the associations of time spent sedentary, in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) with physical capability measures at age 60-64 years. Methods Time spent sedentary and in MVPA and, PAEE were assessed using individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing among 1727 ...

Prospective associations between sedentary time, physical activity, fitness and cardiometabolic risk factors in people with type 2 diabetes

Aims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to examine the prospective associations between objectively measured physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE), sedentary time, moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and cardiometabolic risk factors over 4 years in individuals with recently diagnosed diabetes. Methods Among 308 adults ...

Predictors of change in objectively measured and self-reported health behaviours among individuals with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes: longitudinal results from the ADDITION-Plus trial cohort

Background There is limited evidence about predictors of health behaviour change in people with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess change in health behaviours over one year and to identify predictors of behaviour change among adults with screen-detected and recently clinically diagnosed diabetes. Methods ADDITION-Plus was a randomised controlled trial of a ...

Which Behavior Change Techniques are Associated with Changes in Physical Activity, Diet and Body Mass Index in People with Recently Diagnosed Diabetes?

Interest and Adherence to Ethical Standards Authors Nelli Hankonen, Stephen Sutton, A. Toby Prevost, Rebecca K. Simmons, Simon J. Griffin, Ann Louise Kinmonth, and Wendy Hardeman declare that they have no

Association between objectively assessed sedentary time and physical activity with metabolic risk factors among people with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes

Aims/hypothesis The aim of our study was to examine the associations between sedentary time (SED-time), time spent in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), total physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and cardiorespiratory fitness with metabolic risk among individuals with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Methods Individuals participating in the ...

Increasing objectively measured sedentary time increases clustered cardiometabolic risk: a 6 year analysis of the ProActive study

Aims/hypothesis We aimed to quantify the associations between change in objectively measured sedentary and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) times and self-reported television viewing over 6 years and change in a clustered cardiometabolic risk score (CCMR), including and excluding waist circumference (CCMR without adiposity component, CCMR no adip ), and its individual ...

Socio-demographic and behavioural correlates of physical activity perception in individuals with recently diagnosed diabetes: results from a cross-sectional study

Background Physical activity (PA) levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients are generally low. Poor PA perception may impede healthy behaviour change in this high risk group. We describe (i) objective PA levels, (ii) the difference between objective and self-reported PA (‘PA disparity’) and the correlates of (iii) PA disparity and (iv) overestimation in recently diagnosed ...

Self-Rated Health and Cardiovascular Disease Incidence: Results from a Longitudinal Population-Based Cohort in Norfolk, UK

Introduction Self-rated health (SRH) predicts chronic disease morbidity including cardiovascular disease (CVD). In a population-based cohort, we examined the association between SRH and incident CVD and whether this association was independent of socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural participant characteristics. Methods Population-based prospective cohort study (European ...

Multiple behaviour change intervention and outcomes in recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes: the ADDITION-Plus randomised controlled trial

Aims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to assess whether or not a theory-based behaviour change intervention delivered by trained and quality-assured lifestyle facilitators can achieve and maintain improvements in physical activity, dietary change, medication adherence and smoking cessation in people with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Methods An explanatory randomised ...

Protocol for ADDITION-PRO: a longitudinal cohort study of the cardiovascular experience of individuals at high risk for diabetes recruited from Danish primary care

Background Screening programmes for type 2 diabetes inevitably find more individuals at high risk for diabetes than people with undiagnosed prevalent disease. While well established guidelines for the treatment of diabetes exist, less is known about treatment or prevention strategies for individuals found at high risk following screening. In order to make better use of the ...

Effect of early intensive multifactorial therapy compared with routine care on self-reported health status, general well-being, diabetes-specific quality of life and treatment satisfaction in screen-detected type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (ADDITION-Europe): a cluster-randomised trial

Aims/hypothesis The study aimed to examine the effects of intensive treatment (IT) vs routine care (RC) on patient-reported outcomes after 5 years in screen-detected diabetic patients. Methods In a pragmatic, cluster-randomised, parallel-group trial, 343 general practices in Denmark, Cambridge and Leicester (UK) and the Netherlands were randomised to screening for type 2 diabetes ...

Who will increase their physical activity? Predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity over 12 months in the ProActive cohort

Background The aim was to identify predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity over 12 months in the ProActive cohort to improve understanding of factors influencing change in physical activity. Methods ProActive is a physical activity promotion trial that took place in Eastern England (1999-2004). 365 offspring of people with type 2 diabetes underwent ...

Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Using Proposed HbA1c Diagnostic Criteria in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer–Norfolk Cohort: Implications for preventive strategies

PARINYA CHAMNAN REBECCA K. SIMMONS PHD NITA G. FOROUHI ROBERT N. LUBEN BSC KAY-TEE KHAW PHD NICHOLAS J. WAREHAM PHD SIMON J. GRIFFIN DM E p i d e m i o l o g y / H e a l t h OBJECTIVE-To evaluate

Applied public health research - falling through the cracks?

Background There is a degree of dissonance between the types of evaluative research required by organisations providing or commissioning health care, those recommended by organisations developing evidence-based guidance, and those which research funding bodies are prepared to support. Methods We present a case study of efforts to establish a pragmatic but robust evaluation of local ...